Main Article Content
Seed weight is essential in assessing seed quality traits, while sowing medium has significant role in seed germination. This study therefore assessed effect of seed weights and sowing media on germination of Afzelia africana seeds to enhancing sustainable production of the species.
Seeds of different sizes were collected, weighed and grouped into small (120), medium (120) and large (120) seeds. Each seed group was sown in three sowing media (washed river sand, decomposed sawdust, and forest top soil) replicated 4 times and arranged in Completely Randomized Design. The growth assessment comprised of 3 treatments which included seedlings from small, medium and large seeds and replicated 4 times. Plant height, leaf production and stem diameter were assessed fortnightly for twelve weeks. Biomass assessment was carried out twice (second week and twelfth week). Mean Daily Germination, Germination Percentage, Germination Energy, Peak Value, Germination value, Net Assimilation Rate and Relative Growth Rate were estimated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Mean Daily Germination showed that large seeds sown in river sand large seed size sown in saw dust (T4 and T7) had highest value of 3.47 and 3.29 respectively with GV of 12.83.
There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the effects of different sowing media and seed weights on the germination of A. africana. Saw dust gave the highest mean value with 52.777±0.28 while mean value of large sized seeds was highest (57.539±0.6). There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the effects of different seed weight on the height, collar diameter and leaf production.
Germination percentage of A. africana improved significantly with the sowing media and seed weight especially sawdust, river sand, and large seed size. It therefore suggested that A. africana seedling should be raised at nursery stage with river sand and Large seed size in order to increase the growth of plant and have more vigorous seedlings for plantation establishment.
Hutchings A, Scott AH, Lewis G, Cunningham A. Zulu medicinal: An inventory. University of Natal press, Pietermaritzburg; 1996.
Ejikeme CM, Chukwuma SE Qualitative and quantitative determination of photochemical contents of indigenous Nigerian softwoods Hindawi. Publishing Corporation New Journal of Science. 2001;20:9.
[Article ID 5601327]
Cendán C, Sampedro L, Zas R. The maternal environment determines the timing of germination in Pinus pinaster. Environ. Exp. Bot. 2013;94:66-72.
Miles A, Brown M. Teaching organic farming and gardening: Resources for instructors. Santa Cruz: University of California Farm and Garden; 2007.
Boyko A, Blevins T, Yao Y, Golubov A, Bilichak A, Ilnytskyy Y. Trans generational adaptation of Arabidopsis to stress requires DNA Methylation and the function of Dicer-like: Proteins. 2010;34.
Li ZQ, Yu DT UMA, SH. Seed germination of three species of Vallisneria (Hydro charitaceae), and the effects of freshwater microalgae. Hydro Biological. 2005;544:11–18.
Lacey EP. A growth chamber experiment to examine pre- and postzygotic temperature effects. Evolution. Plantago Lanceolata. 1996;50:865–878. [PubMed]
Donohue K. Completing the cycle: Maternal effects as the missing link in plant life histories. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 2009;364:1059–1074.
Figueroa R, Herms DA, Cardina J, Doohan D. Maternal environment effects on common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) seed dormancy. Weed Sci. 2010;58:160–166.
Tielbörger K, Petrü M. An experimental test for effects of the maternal environment on delayed germination. Journal of Ecology. 2010;98:1216–1223.
Castro J. Short delay in timing of emergence determines establishment success in Pinus sylvestris across microhabitats. Ann. Bot; 2006;98:1233–1240.
Hendrix SD. Variation in seed weight and its effects on germination in Pastinaca sativa L. (Umbelli ferae) American. Journal of Botany. 1984;71:795–802.
Baskin CC, Baskin JM. Seeds: Ecology, biogeography and evolution of dormancy and germination. San Diego: Academic Press; 1998.
Dutta AC. Botany for degree students Revised. Edition 6th edition Oxford University Press. Delhi. Bombay, Madras. 1995;90-103.
Houssard C, Escarre J. The effect of seed weight on growth and competitive ability Rumex acetosella from two successional old fields. Oecologia. 1991;86:236-242.
Adebisi MA, Kehinde TO, Salau AW, Okesola LA, Porbeni JBO, Esuruoso AO, Oyekale KO. Influence of different seed size fractions on seed germination, seedling emergence and seed yield characters in tropical soybean (Glycine max L.Merrill). International Journal of Agricultural Research. 2013;8:26-33.
Arunachalam A, Khan MI, Singh ND. Germination growth and biomass accumulation as influenced by seed size in Mesua ferra L. Turkish Journal of Botany. 2003;27:343-348.
Douglass JF, Thomas LD. Tara Growing media. In: Dumroese R, Kasten, Luna, Tara; Landis, Thomas D., editors. Nursery manual for native plants: A guide for tribal nurseries - Nursery management. Agriculture Handbook 730. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. 2009;1:77-93.
Parente A, Serio F, Montesano, FF, Mininni C, Santamaria P. The compost of Posidonia residues: A short review on a new component for soilless growing media. Acta Hortic. 2000;1034:291–298.
FRIN. Annual Metrological Report of Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria. 2017;9.
Schelin M, Tigabu M, Eriksson I, Sawadogo L. Effect of scarification, gibberellic acid and dry heat treatments on the germination of Balantiesa egyptica seeds from the Sudanian savanna in Burkina Faso. Seed Science and Technology. 2003;31:605-617.
Adebisi MA, Kehinde TO, Ajala MO, Olowu EF, Rasaki S. Assessment of seed quality and potential on gevityinelite tropical soybean (Glycine max L.) Merrill grown in South western Nigeria. Nigeria. Agric .Journal. 2011;42:94-103.
Forest Ecology and Management. 2009;258:1084-1092.
Gunaga R, Doddabasava P, Vasudeva R. Influence of seed size on germination and seedling growth in Mammea suriga. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science. 2011;24:415-416.
Hojjat SS. Effect of seed size on the germination and seedling growth of some lentil genotypes. International Journal of Agricultural Crop Science. 2011;3.
Kazeem-Ibrahim F. Effects of plant growth regulators on rooting potentials of Caesalpinia bonduc (L) Roxb. Cuttings. JWHSD. 2019;5:3-11.
Asinwa IO, Kazeem-Ibrahim F, Olaifa KA, Asabia LO. Storage potentials and influence of moisture contents on the germination of Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife & Environment. 2019;11(2).
Dickens D. Effect of propagation media on the germination and seed performance of Irvingia wombolu (Vermoesen). American Journal Biotechnology and Molecular Sciences. 2011;21593701.
[ISSN print: 21503698]
DOI:10525/ajbms.2011.1.2.51.56 ©science Hu,
Okunomo KU, Ureigho N, Opute HO. The effect of soil amendment on the performance of Gambaya albida seedlings. European Jounal of Science Research. 2000;13:24415.
Okunomo K, Orji EC. Agroforestry technology: An environmental-friendly initiative. Nigerian Journal of Research Production. 2004;4:38-47.
Okunomo K. Germination and seedling growth of Parkia bicolor (A. Cheu) as influenced by nursery techniques. African Journal of General Agriculture. 2010;6(4).
Agboola PA, Adedire MO. Response of treated dormant seeds of tropical tree species of germination promoters. Nigerian Journal of Botany. 2001;11:103110.
Bawa KS, Krugman SL. Reproductive biology and genetics of tropical trees in relation to conservation and management. In Rainforest Regeneration and Management. Man and the Biosphere Series (eds) Gompez-pompa, A; Whitmore, T.C and Hadley. 1991;119-136.
Nagaraju S. Influence of seed size and treatments on seed yield and seed quality of sun flower morden. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. 2001;87.
Hall JS, Mark P, Astone S. Graeme P. Seedling performance of four sympatric Entandrophragma species (Meliaceae) under simulated fertility and moisture regimes of a Central African Rainforest. Journal Tropical Ecology. 2003;19:55- 66.