Main Article Content
A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2017 to June 2018 to assess awareness status and management practice common among dairy cows owners and to determine the prevalence of bovine mastitis and its associated risk factors in four districts and nine kebelles of Western Zone of Tigray Regional State, North West Ethiopia. In this study, out of the 355 dairy cows and 1314 functional quarters examined, 99(27.89%) cows and 142(10.81%) quarters were found positive for sub-clinical mastitis on California Mastitis Test (CMT). In addition, from the 355 dairy cows and 1420 quarters examined, 88(24.79%) and 108(7.61%) cows and teats respectively, were found to be blind. From the total risk factors considered, statistically significant association (P<0.05) was found in different breed, udder type and parity. Semi structured questionnaires surveys were distributed to 87(95.60%) males and 4(4.40%) females. According to the survey result, 76(83.52%) of the dairy cow owners housed their cows in open area with muddy or soily floor type. From the total 91 interviewed 32(35.16%) regularly dispose dung and cleaning of house. During the survey, udder management before and after milking was assessed. According to the response of 89(97.80%) milkers washed their hands prior to milking and 2(2.20%) did not. From the total 91interviewed individuals, 13(14.29%) milkers disinfect their hands before proceeding to milk the next cow while 78(85.71%) did not. During the survey, sequence of milking cows was assessed. Based on the response of respondents, 85(93.41%) of the milker did not follow sequence of milking and the rest 6(6.59%) milkers emphasized the need to follow the order of milking. The result of the present study indicated a relatively high prevalence of subclinical mastitis and with higher incidence of one or more nonfunctional teat which impose higher economic loss to the dairy owners. Lack of strategic control measures and improper attention to the health of the mammary glands contribute the higher infestation rate. Better management practices in milking and adequate housing with proper sanitation should be provided.
Central Statistical Agency (CSA). Federal democratic republic of Ethiopia central statically agency (CSA): Agricultural sample survey. Report on Livestock and livestock Characteristics. 2009;2.
Yigrem S, Beyene F, Tegegne A, Gebremedhin B. Dairy production, processing and marketing systems of Shashemene, Dilla area, South Ethiopia; 2008.
Lukuyu B, Gachuiri C, Gachuiri T, Lukuyu M, Lusweti C, Mwendia S. Feeding dairy animal in East Africa. East Africa Dairy Development. Project; 2012.
Almaw G, Molla W, Melaku A. Prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis in Gondar town and surrounding areas, Ethiopia. Livestock Res. Rural Dev. 2009;21.
Andrew AH, Blowey RW, Boyd H, Eddy RG. Bovine diseases medicine and husbandry of cattle. Blackwell Science Ltd a Blackwell Publishing Company, UK; 2004.
Hillerton JE. Control of mastitis. In: Progress of Dairy Science.” (Ed. C.J.C. Phillips) CAB International, Wallingford. 1996;171-190
International Dairy Federation (IDF). Bovine mastitis: Definition and guidelines for diagnosis International Dairy Federation. Brussels, Belgium, IDF Bulletin 211; 1987.
Halasa T, Huijps K, Sterås O, Hogeveen H. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: A review. Vet. Q. 2007;29:18-31.
Hogeveen H, Huijps K, Lam T. Economic aspects of mastitis: new developments. New Zealand Vet. J. 2011;59:16-23.
Radostits OM, Gay GC, Hinchcliff KW, Constable PD. Veterinary medicine, a text book of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats. 10th Ed., Grafos, S.A. Arte Sobre Papel, Spain. 2007;823-835.
Bartlet P, Joust VW, Devid JW, Charles DG. Temporal patterns of lost milk production following clinical mastitis in a large Michigan Holstein herd. J. Dairy Sci. 1991;4:1561−1572.
Radostits OM, Blood DC. Veterinary medicine: A textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses. 8th edition. Baillerie Tindal: London. 1994; 563−613.
Singh PJ, Sigh B. A study on economic losses due to mastitis in India. J Dairy Sci. 1994;47:265−271.
Radostits OM, Blood DC, Gay CC. Veterinary Medicine, 9th ed., W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 2008;963- 975.
Arga S, Tadesse G, Sisay T, Zewdu E. Bacterial pathogens and udder infection dynamics during the early lactation period in primiparous cows in Ambo Town, Central Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria. 2012; 8:403-408.
Biffa D, Debela E, Beyene F. Prevalence and risk factors of mastitis in lactating dairy cows in Southern Ethiopia. Int. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 2005;3:189-2005.
Humera Agricultural Research Center (HuARC). Annual report on district wise land coverage of Western zone of Tigray (unpublished); 2013.
Shishay M, Berhanu B, Tadelle D. On farm performance evaluation of three local chicken ecotypes in Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. J. Bio, Agri-culture and Healthcare. 2015;5:159.
Mekonnen H, Kalayou S, Kyule M, Asfaha M, Belihu K. Effect of Brucella infection on reproduction conditions of female breeding cattle and its public health significance in Western Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Vet. Med. Int; 2011.
Thrusfield M. Sampling in veterinary epidemiology. 3rd ed. Black well Science Ltd, London. 2005;46:228-242.
Fufa A, Gemechis F, Bekele M, Alemayehu R. Bovine mastitis: Prevalence, risk factors and bacterial isolation in small-holder dairy farms in Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria. 2013;10:647-652.
Lidet G, Benti D, Feyissa B, Abebe M. Study on prevalence of bovine mastitis in lactating cows and associated risk factors in and around Areka town, Southern of Ethiopia. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 2013;7: 5051-5056.
Quinin PJ, Carter ME, Markey BK, Carter GR. Clinical veterinary microbiology. 6th edition, Wolfe Publishing. 1994;21-67.
Workineh S, Bayleyegne M, Mekonnen H, Potgieter LND. Prevalence and etiology of mastitis in cows from two major Ethiopian dairies. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2002;34: 19–25.
Islam MA, Islam MZ, Islam MA, Rahman MS, Islam MT. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in selected areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Vet. Med. 2011;9:73-78.
Nesru H, Teshome Y, Getachew T. Prevalence of bovine mastitis in cross-breed and zebu cattle in Ethiopian. J. Agric. Sci. 1997;16:53-60.
Molalegne B, Arega T, Tadele T. Study on bovine mastitis in dairy farm of Bahirdar and its environs. J. anim. and vet. Advance. 2010;9:2912-2917.
Biru G. Major bacteria causing bovine mastitis and their sensitivity to common antibiotics. Ethiop J. Agric. Sci. 1989;11: 43−49.
Tolla T. Bovine mastitis in indigenous zebu and boran holstein crosses in southern Wollo. Thesis, Debrezeit: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. 1996;25−27.
Zerihun T. A study on bovine subclinical mastitis at stela dairy farm. Thesis, Debrezeit: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. 1996; 25−27.
Hunderra B, Etana D, Ademe Z, Sintayehu A. Dairy cattle mastitis in and around Sebeta, Ethiopia, International Journal. Intl. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 2005;3:432.
Sori H, Zerihun A, Abdicho S. Dairy cattle mastitis in and around Sebeta, Ethiopia. Inter. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 2005;3:332-338.
Biniam T, Rediet T, Yonus A. Prevalence and potential risk factors of bovine mastitis sin selected dairy farms of Dire Dawa Town, Eastern Ethiopia. Appl. J. of Hyg. 2015;4:06–11.
Abera M, Damie B, Aragaw H, Ragassa F, Ragassa A. Isolation and identification of Staphyloccocus aureus from Bovine mastitis milk and drug resistance pattern in Adama Town Ethiopia. J. Vet. Med and Anim. Health. 2013;2:29-34.
Karimuribo ED, Fitzpatrick JL, Bell CE, Swa ES, Kambarage DM, Ogden NH, Bryant MJ, French NP. Clinical and subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania: Risk, intervention and knowledge transfer. Prevet. Vet. Med. 2009;74:84-98.
Iraguha B, Hamudikuwanda H, Mushonga B. Bovine mastitis prevalence and Associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. J. South Africa Vet. Associ. 2015;86:1228.
Salih MD, Junnaid AU, Tambulual FM, Magaji AA, Tafaku S. Prevalence of bovine mastitis in lactating cow in same selected commercial dairy farms in Sokota Metroplis. Appl. Sci. Res. 2011;2:290-294.
Kasech A, Alebachew T, Alemu A. Study on prevalence of bovine mastitis in Tullo District of West Hararghe, Ethiopia. Advances in Biological Research. 2016;10: 147-153.
Girma S, Mammo A, Bogele K, Sori T, Tadesse F, Jibat T. Study on prevalence of bovine mastitis and its major causative agents in West Harerghe zone, Doba district, Ethiopia. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health. 2012;4:116-123.
Abdel-rady A, Sayed M. Epidemiological studies on subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Assuite Governorate. Veterinary World. 2009;2:373–380.
Belachew T. Bovine mastitis prevalence, isolation of bacterial species involved and its antimicrobial susceptibility test around Debrezeit. Ethiopia. J. Vet. Sci. Technol. 2016;7:396.
Tesfaye A. Small scale dairy farming practice and cross-sectional study of mastitis in Nazareth, East Shoa, and Ethiopia. MSc Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia; 2007.
Adugna B. Cross sectional study of mastitis in Dire Dawa and Haramaya University dairy farms, prevalence isolation and identification of pathogens and Antimicrobial sensitivity testing, Eastern Ethiopia.” DVM Thesis, FVM Haramaya University, Ethiopia; 2008.
Gizat A. A cross sectional study of Bovine mastitis in and around Bahir Dar and Antibiotics resistance patterns for major pathogens. MSc Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Debrezeit, Ethiopia; 2004.
Biffa D. Study on the prevalence of bovine mastitis in indigenous zebu cattle and jersey breeds in Wolayta Sodo characterization and in vitro drug sensitivity of the isolates. DVM Thesis, AAU, FVM, Ethiopia. 1994;71-78.
Jirata S, Indalem T. Prevalence of bovine mastitis and assessment of risk factors in and around Wolayta Sodo, Ethiopia. Int. J. of Homeopathy & Natural Med. 2016;2:1-7.
Mekbib B, Furgasa M, Abunna F, Megersa B, Regassa A. Bovine mastitis: Prevalence, risk factors and major pathogens in dairy farm of Holeta town Central Ethiopia. Ethiopian. J. Vet. World. 2009;3:397-403.
Adane B, Guyo K, Tekle Y, Taddele H, Bogale A, Biffa M. Study on prevalence and risk factors of bovine mastitis in borana pastoral and agro-pastoral settings of Yabello District, Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia; 2012.
Amdhun K, Tilahun A, Aylate A. Study on prevalence of bovine mastitis in Tullo District of West Hararghe, Ethiopia. Advan. Biol. Res. 2016;10:147-153.
Tripura T, Sarker S, Roy S, Parvin M, Rahman A, Islam M. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows and efficacy of intra-mammary infusion therapy. Bangladesh J. Vet. Med. 2014;12:55-61.
Attia ERH, Amal A, Metias KNC. Comparative study between electric conductivity, California mastitis test and somatic cell count for rapid diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows in 7th Science congress Egyptian Society for Cattle Disease Assuit, Egypt. 2003;25-26.
Yieng DP, Berhan TM, Getahun AG. Assessment of hygienic milk production and prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows in Jikawo Woreda of Nuer Zone, Gambella Region, Ethiopia. J. Agri. and Natural Res. Sci. 2015;2:480–486.
Abera B, Lemma D, Iticha I. Study on bovine mastitis in Asella government dairy farm of Oromia Regional state, South Eastern Ethiopia. Int. J. Curr. Res. Aca. Res., J. 2013;1:134-145.
Nibret M, Tekle H, Tewodros F, Mersha C, Achenef M. Bovine mastitis and associated risk factors in small holder lactating dairy farms in Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria. 2012;9:441-446.
Schutz MM. Genetic evaluation of somatic cell scores for United States dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 1993;77:2113–2129.
Schalm DW, Carroll EJ, Jain C. Bovine mastitis. Lea and Febiger: Philadelphia. 1971;20−158.
Grommers FJ, Vandebrok AE, Antonisse HW. Variation in incidence due to animal variables. Br Vet J. 1971;127.
Erskine RJ. Mastitis control in dairy herds: Radostitis OM, editor. Herd health: Food animal production. 3rd ed. W.B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia. 2001;397–435.
Bradley AJ. Bovine mastitis: An evolving disease. The Vet. J. 2002;163:1–13.
Hussein N, Yehualashet T, Tilahun G. Prevalence of mastitis in different local and exotic breeds of milking cows. Eth. J. Agr. Sci. 1997;16:53-60.
Zhao X, Lacasse P. Mammary tissue damage during bovine mastitis: Causes and control. J. Anim. Sci. 2008;86:57–65.
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Ticks and tick-borne disease: A practical field manual. FAO: Rome, Italy. 1984;1- 14.