Growth and Extracellular Enzyme Activity Responses of a Multi-enzymic Strain of Serratia sp. in a Simulated Diesel-contaminated System

Main Article Content

Atim Asitok
Sylvester Antai
Maurice Ekpenyong

Abstract

Aim: The present study was aimed at elucidating the alternative metabolic preferences of Serratia sp. strain DW2 that permitted its survival in a diesel-contaminated environment.

Study Design: We adopted a 4 x 4 x 3 completely randomized design of a full-factorial experiment for the study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, University of Calabar, Nigeria, during the months of March and June, 2019.

Methodology: In this study, Serratia sp. strain DW2 was isolated from Douglas Creek water of the Qua Iboe Estuary, along the Qua Iboe terminal at Ibeno, Nigeria, as a significant biological contributor to the decontamination process through inherent ability to utilize diesel oil hydrocarbons. This paper elucidated the growth and responses of the bacterial lipase, caseinase and gelatinase activities to diesel-oil hydrocarbon contamination.

Results: Range finding test results showed that the bacterium could grow in the presence of water soluble fraction of diesel (wsf-D) concentration between .0042 and .0335 µg/mL, albeit with increasing lag time and decreasing specific growth rate when compared with growth in glucose-Bushnell-Haas broth. Lag time changes were not significantly influenced by exposure time but changes in specific growth rate were. Gelatinase activity was most susceptible to toxicant onslaught but was least affected by exposure time. Conversely, lipase activity was the most affected by exposure time. Toxicant concentration/exposure time interaction of a two-way analysis of variance model for caseinase activity was not significant (P > .05) but those for lipase and gelatinase activities were.

Conclusion: The bacterium survived diesel toxicity by exploiting its lipase and gelatinase activities for provision of alternative sources of carbon, energy and nitrogen to drive ecosystem decontamination in the event of refined petroleum contamination.

Keywords:
Serratia sp., strain DW2, toxicity, water soluble fraction of diesel, exposure time, two-way ANOVA.

Article Details

How to Cite
Asitok, A., Antai, S., & Ekpenyong, M. (2019). Growth and Extracellular Enzyme Activity Responses of a Multi-enzymic Strain of Serratia sp. in a Simulated Diesel-contaminated System. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 19(2), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2019/v19i230080
Section
Original Research Article

References

Imron MF, Titah HS. Optimization of diesel biodegradation by Vibrio alginolyticus using Box-Behnken design. Environ Eng Res. 2018;23:374-382.
Available:https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2018.015

Dixit H, Lowry M, Mohsin U, Moond M, Kumar S, Chokriwal A, Gupta S. Growth optimization and comparative analysis of diesel oil degradation potential of Bacillus sp. isolated from petroleum contaminated soil of Barmer, Rajasthan. Int J Recent Sci Res. 2018;9:24730-24737.
Available:https://doi.org/10.9790/2402-1009010108

Prasad RG, Anuprakash MVVS. Pollution due to oil spills in marine and control measures. IOSR J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol. 2016;10:1-8.
Available:https://doi.org/10.9790/2402-1009010108

Itah AY, Essien JP. Growth profile and hydrocarbonoclastic potential of microorganisms isolated from tarballs in the bight of bonny, Nigeria. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;21:1317-1322.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-004-6694-z

Ekpenyong MG, Antai SP, Essien JP. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria and fungi in Qua Iboe Estuary, Nigeria. Res J Microbiol. 2007;2:415-425.

Available:https://doi.org/10.3923/jm.2007.415.425

Das N, Chandran P. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants: An overview. Biotechnol Res Int; 2011.
[Article ID 941810]
Available:https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/941810

Ekpenyong MG, Antai SP, Asitok AD. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain IKW1 produces an unusual polymeric surface-active compound in waste frying oil-minimal medium. Int J Sci. 2016;5:108-123.
Available:https://doi.org/10.18483/ijSci.1064

Fender JE, Bender CM, Stella NA, Lahr RM, Kalivoda EJ, Shanks RMQ. Serratia marcescens quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase activity mediates medium acidification and prodigiosin inhibition by glucose. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78: 6225-6235.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01778-12

Haddix PL, Jones S, Patel P, Burnham S, Knights K, Powell JN, LaForm A. Kinetic analysis of growth rate, ATP and pigmentation suggests and energy-spilling function for the pigment prodigiosin of Serratia marcescens. J Bacteriol. 2008; 190:7453-7463.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00909-08

Asitok AD, Ekpenyong MG. Comparative analysis of determination methods of glyphosate degradation by Trichoderma asperellum strain JK-28: A multivariate statistical approach. J Agric Ecol Res Int. 2019;19:1-14.
Available:https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2019/v19i130070

Iboyo AE, Asitok AD, Ekpenyong MG, Antai SP. Selection of Enterobacter cloacae strain POPE6 for fermentative production of extracellular lipase on palm kernel oil processing effluent. Int J Sci. 2017;6:1-22.
Available:https://doi.org/10.18483/ijSci.1482

Asitok AD, Antai SP, Ekpenyong MG. Water soluble fraction of crude oil uncouples protease biosynthesis and activity in hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria; Implications for natural attenuation. Int J Sci. 2017;6:5-21.
Available:https://doi.org/10.18483/ijSci.1344

Vazquez SC, Hernandez E, MacCormack MP. Extracellular proteases from the Antartic marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. P96-47 strain. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2008; 40: 63-71.

Coelho DF, Saturnino TP, Fernandes FF, Mazzola PG, Silveira E, Tambourgi EB. Azocasein substrate for determination of proteolytic activity: Re-examining a traditional method using bromelain samples. BioMed Res Int; 2016.
[Article ID 8409183]
Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/8409183

Ekpenyong M, Asitok A, Odey A, Antai S. Production and activity kinetics of gelatinase by Serratia sp.SLO3. Nig J Biopest. 2016;1:70-82.

Zeng J, Teng F, Murray BE. Gelatinase is important for translocation of Enterococcus faecalis across polarized human erythrocyte-like T84 cells. Infect Immun. 2005;73:1606-1612.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.73.3.1606-1612.2005

Papa MFD, Hancock LE, Thomas VC, Perego M. Full activation of Enterococcus faecalis gelatinase by a C-terminal proteolytic cleavage. J Bacteriol. 2007;189: 8835-8843.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.01311-07

Usharani B, Muthuraj M. Production and characterization of protease enzyme from Bacillus laterosporus. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2010; 4:1057-1063.

Elkenawy NM, Yassin AS, Elhifnawy HN, Amin MA. Optimization of prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens using crude glycerol and enhancing production using gamma radiation. Biotechnol Rep. 2017;14:47-53.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2017.04.001

Karamba KI, Ahmad SA, Zulkharnain A, Yasid NA, Ibrahim S, Shukor MY. Batch growth kinetic studies of locally-isolated cyanide-degrading Serratia marcescens strain AQ07. 3 Biotech; 2017.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-017-1025-x

Ekpenyong MG, Antai SP. Cadmium toxicity on species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas during growth on crude oil. Trends Appl Sci Res. 2007;2:115-123.
Available:https://doi.org/10.3923/tasr.2007.115.123

Rajasekar A. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon and its influence on corrosion with special reference to petroleum industry. In: Rajasekar A, Maruthamuthu S, Ting YP, Balasubramanian R, Rahman PKSM, Editors. Bacterial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Switzerland: Springer Nature; 2012.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-23789-8_13

Xia M, Liu Y, Taylor AA, Fu D, Khan AR. Crude oil depletion by bacterial strains isolated from a petroleum hydrocarbon impacted solid waste management site in California. Int Biodet Biodegrad. 2017;123: 70-77.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2017.06.003

Nkanang AJ, Antai SP, Asitok AD, Ekpenyong MG. Assessment of diesel oil toxicity on some hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria isolated from Iko River estuary in the Niger Delta. World J Pharma Med Res. 2018;4:48-55.