Biometry and Pre-germinating Manilkara zapota L. Seed Treatments

Main Article Content

Luan Danilo Ferreira de Andrade Melo
João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior
Marcus Gabriel de Cavalho Ramos
Wesley Oliveira de Assis
Reinaldo de Alencar Paes
Alberício Pereira de Andrade
Larice Bruna Ferreira Soares
Jaqueline Figueredo de Oliveira Costa
Priscila Cordeiro Souto
Maria Inajal Rodrigues da Silva das Neve
Dougllas Ferreira da Rocha


Manilkara zapota L., popularly known as sapoti, has commercial relevance both for fruits, with high prices in the regional markets, and for its wood. Thus, the propagation of this species can be done by seed, however, the germination is slow and uneven. The objective of this work was to study the biometry of the seeds and to evaluate pre-germinative treatments to facilitate the propagation of sapoti. The fruits were from the municipality of Brejão-PE and length, width and thickness were determined in millimeters of each seed and submitted to different pre-germination treatments. The seeds were exposed to the following evaluations: biometry, dormancy overrun, germination tests, germination speed index, root length and aerial part of the seedlings and dry mass of the root and shoot of the seedlings. They have variability regarding their biometry and do not require the adoption of treatments for the breakdown of dormancy, which enables and accelerates the production of seedlings. The treatments aimed at overcoming dormancy of sapoti were not efficient to accelerate the germination of the seeds.

Dormancy, sapotizeiro, propagation

Article Details

How to Cite
Melo, L. D. F. de A., Junior, J. L. de A. M., Ramos, M. G. de C., de Assis, W. O., Paes, R. de A., Andrade, A. P. de, Ferreira Soares, L. B., Oliveira Costa, J. F. de, Souto, P. C., das Neve, M. I. R. da S., & da Rocha, D. F. (2019). Biometry and Pre-germinating Manilkara zapota L. Seed Treatments. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 19(4), 1-9.
Original Research Article


Mendonça V, Corrêa FLO, Pio R, Rufini JCM, Carrijo EP, Ramos JD. Simple superphosphate and potassium chloride in the formation of sapodon tree rootstock [Manilkara zapota (L.) Von Royen]. Science and Agrotechnology. 2007;31(1): 140-146.

Azerêdo GA, Bruno RLA, Lopes KP, Silva A, Bruno GB. Performance of sapoti seeds (Achras sapota L.) submitted to different pre-germination treatments. Brazilian Journal of Fruit. 2002;24(1):147-150.

Costa ADC. Wood anatomy in Sapotaceae. Thesis (Doctorate) - Institute of Biosciences, University of São Paulo. Department of Botany. 2006;200.

Reyes B B, Galarza MLA, Fast CS, Damián MTM. Process of ripening chicozapote fruits (Manilkara sapota (L.) P. Royen) fine type. Cha Splash Magazine. 2005;11(002):387-391.

Almeida Junior EB, Lima LF, Lima PB, Zickel CS. Morphological description of fruits and seeds of Manilkara salzmannii (Sapotaceae). Forest. 2010;40(3):535- 540.

Miranda MRA, Silva FS, Alves RE, Filgueiras HAC, Araújo NCC. Storage of two types of sapodilla under ambient conditions. Brazilian Journal of Fruit. 2002; 24(3):644-646.

Moura RJM, Bezerra JEF, Silva MA, Cavalcante. Brazilian Journal of Fruit. 5: 103-112.

Brito CC, Mendonça V, Medeiros PVQ, Tosta MS, Medeiros LF. Covered Nitrogen Fertilization in the production of sapotizeiro rootstock [Manilkara Zapota (L.) Von Royen]. Scientific Farming in the Semi-Arid. 2007;03:08-13.

Carvalho NM, Nakagawa J. Seeds: Science, technology and production. 5th Ed. Jaboticabal: Funep. 2012;590.

Alves JKB, Lima CGB, Chagas EA, Lozano RMB, Ribeiro MIG, Vilena JO. Biometric and chemical characterization of fruits of camu-camu populations, Caracaraí, Roraima. XXII Brazilian Congress of Fruit; 2012.

Fontenele ACF, Aragao WM, Rangel JHA. Fruit and seed biometrics of desmanthus virgatus (l) willd native to sergipe. Brazilian Journal of Biosciences. 2007;5:252-254.

Rebouças ER, Gentil DFO, Ferreira SAN. Physical characterization of fruits and seeds of guava from Costa Rica, produced in Manaus, Amazonas. Brazilian Fruit Journal. 2008;30(2):546-548.

Borges KCF, Santana DG, Melo B, Santos CM. Pulp yield and morphometry of fruits and seeds of Cerrado pitangueira. Brazilian Journal of Fruit. 2010;32(2):471-478.

Melo LDFA, Melo Junior JLA, Ferreira VM, Araujo Neto JC, Neves MIRS. Biometric characterization and seed germination of giant mimosa (Mimosa bimucronata (DC) O. Kuntze). Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2018;12:108-115.

Laboriau LG. The germination of the seed. Washington: OAS General Secretariat. 1983;173.

Brazil Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. Rules for seed analysis. 2009; 365.

Melo LDAF. Physiological potential of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (vell) seeds. Morong Monograph (Agronomy Course) - Federal Rural University of Pernambuco; 2011.

Maguire JD. Speed of germination aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigor. Crop Science. 1962; 2(2):176-177.

Nakagawa J. Vigor tests based on seedling performance. In: Krzyzanowski FC, Vieira RD, France NJB. Seed Vigor: Concepts and Tests. 1999;2(1):2-24.

Ferreira DF. Sisvar: A computer statistical analysis system. Science and Agrotechnology. 2011;35(6):1039-1042.

Silva RSM, Chaves LJ, Naves RV. Fruit and tree characterization of cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica DC.) In southeastern Goiás State, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Fruit. 2001;23(2):330-334.

Marcos Filho J. Cultivated plant seed physiology. Piracicaba / SP: Luiz de Queiroz Agricultural Studies Foundation. 2015;1(12):495.

Almeida EJ, Martins ABG () Sapodizing tree (Manilkara zapota L.) propagation by cuttings. Bioscience Journal. 2010;26 (6):925-929.

Magalhães ACB. Characterization of fruits and seeds and germination of Passiflora edulis sims f. flavicarpa degener and passiflora cincinnata mast. Dissertation (Master in Plant Genetic Resources). Postgraduate Program in Plant Genetic Resources, Department of Biological Sciences, State University of Feira de Santana; 2010.

Crookston RK, Hill DSA. Visual indicator of the physiological maturity of soybean seed. Crop Science. 1978;18:867-870.

Marubayashi OM, Rosolem CA, Nakagawa J, Zan Duo MO. Phosphate fertilization, yield and seed quality of peanut populations. Brazilian Agricultural Research. 1997;32:885-892.

Seleguini A, Camilo YMV, Souza ERB, Martins ML, Belo APM, Fernandes AL. Overcoming dormancy in buriti seeds by mechanical scarification and imbibition. Agro @ mbiente Magazine Online. 2012; 6(3):235-241.

Richard B, Rivoal J, Spiteri A, Pradet A. Anaerobic stress induces transcription and translation of sucrose synthase in rice. Plant Physiology. 1991;95(3):669-674.

Passos IRS, Matos GVC, Meletti LMM, SCott MDS, Bernacci LB, Vieira MAR. Use of gibberellic acid to break dormancy of in vitro germinated Passiflora nitida Kunth seeds. Brazilian Journal of Fruit. 2004; 26(2):380-381.

Guedes RS, Alves EU, Gonçalves EP, Viana JS, Moura MF, Lima CR. Pre-germinative treatments on seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL. Journal of Biology and Pharmacy. 2008;03(01).

Sarmento FSG. Influence of seed size and dormancy breaking methods on the germination and formation of cashew (Spondias lutea S.) seedlings. (Agronomy Work)-Federal University of Paraíba; 1997.

Ramos KMO, Felfili JM, Faggi CW, Souza Silva JC, Franco AC. Initial growth and biomass distribution of Amburana cearensis (Allemao) AC. Smith. In different shading conditions. Brazilian Botanical Act. 2004;18(2):351-358.