A Newly Emerged Pest of Tomato [Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)]: In Bangladesh – A Review on Its Problems and Management Strategies

Main Article Content

Md. Nurul Huda
Tanzim Jahan
Hasan Fuad El Taj
Khalid A. Asiry


Worldwide, tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most devastating invasive pests of tomato crops. It is one of the most important biotic constraints for tomato production which may lead to the production loss up to 100% if it cannot be controlled. T. absoluta comprises four developmental stages: egg, larvae, pupa, and adult with a rapid growth rate. Among these larvae is the most devastating stage which affects the fruit, leaves, and stem. Recently, T. absoluta is turned into a key pest of tomato in Bangladesh. This pest was first detected by IPM lab, Horticulture Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh from a commercial tomato grower in the village of Chaklarhat (26019’N, 88043’E) under the Tunirhat union of Panchagarh Sadar Upazila, Panchagarh district of Bangladesh in May 2016. Since its introduction in 2016, there was no sound action plan implemented. Therefore, this paper focused on relevant scientific knowledge regarding its biology, potential damage and different control measures which will open the windows for future researches for efficient and sustainable management strategies against T. absoluta in Bangladesh.

Tomato, Tuta absoluta, invasive pest, control methods, breeding, insect resistance, management strategies.

Article Details

How to Cite
Huda, M. N., Jahan, T., Taj, H. F. E., & Asiry, K. A. (2020). A Newly Emerged Pest of Tomato [Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)]: In Bangladesh – A Review on Its Problems and Management Strategies. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 21(3), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i330132
Review Article


Kavanaugh CJ, Trumbo PR, EllwoodKC. The US food and drug administration's evidence-based review for qualified health claims: tomatoes, lycopene, and cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2007;99(14):1074-1085.

Rouphael Y, Schwarz D, Krumbein A, CollaG. Impact of grafting on product quality of fruit vegetables. Scientia Horticulturae. 2010;127:172-179.

Jenkins JA. The origin of cultivated tomato. Economic Botany. 1948;2(4):379-392.

FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Faostat. Production/yield quantities of Tomatoes in World + (Total); 2018.
(Accessed 6 February 2020) Available:http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC/visualize.

BBS. Yearbook of Agricultural statistics of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistics and Informatics Division (SID), Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka. 2017:301-302.

Materu CL, Shao EA, Losujaki E, Chidege M, Mwambela N. Farmer’s perception knowledge and practices on management of Tuta absoluta Meyerick (Lepidotera Gelechiidae) in Tomato growing areas in Tanzania. International Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry. 2016;3(2):1-5.

Chidege M, Al-zaidi S, Hassan N, Julie A, Kaaya E, Mrogoro S. First record of tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Tanzania. Agriculture & Food Security. 2016;5:17.

Assaf LH, Hassan FR, Ismael HR, Saeed SA. Population density of tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under plastic houses conditions (b). IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS). 2013; 5(4):7-10.

Omondi JVH. Effects of insecticide treated nets in the management of tomato pests and their impact on natural enemies and yield in Nairobi and Murang’a counties (Master’s thesis). The School of Pure and Applied Sciences of Kenyatta University, Kenya; 2015.

Illakwahhi DT, Srivastava BBL. Control and management of tomato Leafminer-Tuta Absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidotera, Gelechiidae). A review. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 2017; 10(6):14-22.

Shiberu T, Getu E. Evaluation of bio-pesticides on integrated management of tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) on Tomato Crops in Western Shewa of Central Ethiopia. Journal of Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology. 2018;6(4):206. DOI:10.4172/2161-0983.1000206

Zappala L, Biondi A, Alma A, Al-JbooryI J, Arno J, BayramA.et al. Natural enemies of the South American moth, Tuta absoluta, in Europe, North Africa and Middle East, and their potential use in pest control strategies. Journal of Pest Science. 2013;86(4):635-647.

Tonnang HEZ, Mohamed SA, Khamis F, Ekesi S. Identification and risk assessment for worldwide invasion and spread of Tuta absoluta with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Phytosanitary measures and management. Plos one. 2015;10(9):e0138319. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0135283

Biondi A, Guedes R, Wan F. Ecology, worldwide spread, and management of the invasive South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta: Past, present, and future. Annual Review of Entomology. 2018;63: 239-258.

Bajracharya AS, Bhat B, Mainali RP, Bista S, Shashank PR, Meshram NM. The first record of South American tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Nepal. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2016; 4(4):1359-1363.

Uulu TE, Ulusoy MR, Caliskan AF. First record of tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Kyrgyzstan. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 2017;47(2):285-287.

Saidov N, Srinivasan R, Mavlyanova R, Qurbonov Z. First report of invasive South American tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Tajikistan. Florida Entomologist. 2018; 101(1):147-149.

Muniappan R. Tuta absoluta: The tomato leafminer. Paper prsented in the international workshop in Nepal. Asian Vegetable and Mango Integrated Pest Management Innovation Lab (AVMIPM-IL), IDE Nepal; 2016.

Zekeya N, Chacha M, Ndakidemi PA, Materu C, Chidege M, Mbega ER. Tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta Meyrick 1917): A threat to tomato production in Africa. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International. 2017b;10(1):1-10.

Ghoneim K. Parasitic insects and mites as potential biocontrol agents for a devastative pest of tomato, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the world: A review. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2014;2(8):81-115.

Guillemaud T, Blin A, Le GoffI, Desneux N, Reyes M, Tabone E, et al. The tomato borer, Tuta absoluta, invading the Mediterranean Basin, originates from a single introduction from Central Chile. Scientific Report. 2015;5:8371.
DOI: 10.1038/srep08371

Zekeya N, Ndakidemi PA, Chacha M, Mbega E. Tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917), an emerging agricultural pest in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current and prospective management strategies. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017a; 12(6):389-396.

Desneux N, Luna MG, Guillemaud T, Urbaneja A. The invasive South American tomato pinworm, Tuta Absoluta, continues to spread in Afro-Eurasia and beyond: The new threat to tomato world production. Journal of Pest Science. 2011;84(4):403-408.

Ogur E, Unlu L, Karaca M. Chenopodium album L.: A new host plant of Tuta absoluta povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Turkish Bulletin of Entomology. 2014;4(1):61-65.

Mansour R, Brevault T, Chailleux A, Cherif A, Grissa-LebdiK, HaddiK, et al. Occurrence, biology, natural enemies and management of Tuta absoluta in Africa. Entomologia Generalis. 2018;38(2):83-112.

Han P, Bayram Y, Shaltiel-Harpaz L, Sohrabi F, Saji A, Esenali UT. et al. Tuta absoluta continues to disperse in Asia: damage, ongoing management and future challenges. Journal of Pest Science. 2019; 92(4):1317-1327.

Gontijo PC, Picanço MC, Pereira EJG, Martins JC, Chediak M, Guedes RNC. Spatial and temporal variation in the control failure likelihood of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta. Annals of Applied Biology. 2013;162:50-59.

Retta AN, Berhe DH. Tomato leaf miner–Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), a devastating pest of tomatoes in the highlands of Northern Ethiopia: A call for attention and action. Research Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Management. 2015;4(6): 264-269.

CABI. Invasive species compendium: Tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta); 2016. Available:http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/49260

Campos MR, Biondi A, Adiga A, Guedes RNC, Desneux N. From the Western Palaearctic region to beyond: Tuta absoluta 10 years after invading Europe. Journal of Pest Science. 2017;90(3):787-796.

Ndor DC. Incidence of Tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta Meyrick) damage on Tomato fields in Pankshin and Kanke Local Government Areas of Plateau State. Agricultural Science Research Journal. 2018;8(1):15-19.

EPPO. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France; 2018.

Sankarganesh E, Firake DM, Sharma B, Verma VK, Behere GT. Invasion of the South American Tomato Pinworm, Tuta absoluta, in northeastern India: a new challenge and biosecurity concerns. Entomologia Generalis. 2017;36(4):335-345.

Hossain MS, Mian MY, Muniappan R. First Record of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) from Bangladesh. Journal of agricultural and urban entomology. 2016; 32(1):101-105.

Birgucu AK, Bayindir A, Celikpence Y, KaracaI. Growth inhibitory effects of bio- and synthetic insecticides on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Turkish Journal of Entomology. 2014; 38(4):389-400.

Joshi A, Thapa RB, Kalauni D. Integrated management of South American tomato leaf miner [Tuta absoluta (meyrick)]: a review. Journal of the Plant Protection Society. 2018;5:70-86.

Miranda MMM, Picanco MC, Zanuncio JC, Bacci L, da Silva EM. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato. Ciencia Rural. 2005;35(1):204-208.

EPPO. Tuta absoluta Found on Phaseolus vulgaris in Sicilia (IT). EPPO Reporting Service. 2009;8(154):3.

Harizanova V, Stoeva A, Mohamedova M. Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta (Povolny) (Lepidoptera: gelechiidae)–First Record in Bulgaria. Agricultural Science and Technology. 2009;1(3):95-98.

Megido RC, Haubruge E, Verheggen FJ. Pheromone-based management strategies to control the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). A review. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment. 2013;17(3):475-482.

PPD. Tomato leaf miner; Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). Retrieved from Government of Nepal, Plant Protection Directorate; 2017.

Barrientos ZR, Apablaza HJ, Norero SA, Estay PP. Threshold temperature and thermal constant for development of the South American tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria. 1998;25(3):133-137.

Berxolli A, Shahini S. Population dynamic of tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Albanian Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Special Edition). 2017;85-89.

Ballal CR, Gupta A, Mohan M, Lalitha Y, Verghese A. The new invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in India and its natural enemies alongwith evaluation of Trichogrammatids for its biological control. Current Science. 2016;110(11):2155-2159.

Desneux N, Wajnberg E, Wyckhuys KAG, Burgio G, Arpaia S, Narváez-Vasquez CA. et al. Biological Invasion of European Tomato Crops by Tuta Absoluta: Ecology, Geographic Expansion and Prospects for Biological Control. Journal of Pest Science. 2010;83(3):197-215.

Braham M, Hajji L. Management of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) with insecticides on tomatoes. Insecticides–Pest Engineering. 2012:333-354.

Sanda NB, Sunusi M, Hamisu HS, Wudil BS, Sule H, Abdullahi AM. Biological invasion of tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in Nigeria: Problems and management strategies optimization: A review. Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research. 2018;1(4):1-14.

Urbaneja A, Desneux N, Gabarra R, Arno J, Gonzalez-Cabrera J, Mafra Neto A.et al. Biology, ecology and management of the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta. In: Pena JE, editor. Potential invasive pests of agricultural crops. CABI, Wallingford, UK. 2013;98-125.

Rwomushana I, Beale T, Chipabika G, Day R, Gonzalez-Moreno P, Lamontagne-Godwin J. et al. Evidence Note. Tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta): impacts and coping strategies for Africa. CABI Working Paper 12. 2019:1-56.

Borisade OA, Kolawole AO, Adebo GM, Uwaidem YI. The tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) attack in Nigeria: Effect of climate change on over-sighted pest or agro-bioterrorism? Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. 2017;9(8):163-171.

Cocco A, Deliperi S, Delrio G. Control of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomato crops using the mating disruption technique. Journal of Applied Entomology. 2012;137: 16-28.

Shehata I, Ebada I, IsmailI A, Fouda M, Salama SH. On the population dynamics of the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Egypt. Ecologia Balkanica. 2016;8(2):65-75.

Aynalem B. Tomato leafminer [(Tuta absoluta Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)] and its current ecofriendly management strategies: A review. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development. 2018;10(2):11-24.

Gozel C, KasapI. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the Tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in tomato field. Turkish Journal of Entomology. 2015;39(3): 229-237.

Oke A, Awe SA. XXV International Congress of Entomology. Entomological Society of America. Orlando, Florida, USA. 2016;25-30.

Vincent C, Weintraub P, Hallman G. Physical Control of Insect Pests. In: Encyclopedia of Insects. 2nd ed. Elsevier B.V; 2009:794-798.

All J. Cultural Control of Insect Pests. In: Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer, Dordrecht; 2005.

Markovi D. Crop diversification affects biological pest control Intercropping influence pest control. Agroznanje. 2013; 14(2):449-459.

Mohamed ESI, Mahmoud MEE, Elhaj MAM, Mohamed SA, Ekesi S. Host plant records of tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in Sudan. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 2015;45(1):108-111.

Balzan M, Moonen A. Management strategies for the control of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) damage in open field cultivations of processing tomato in Tuscany (Italy). Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 2012;42(2):217-225.

Giorgini M, Guerrieri E, Cascone P,Gontijo L. Current strategies and future outlook for managing the Neotropical tomato Pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in the Mediterranean Basin. Neotropical Entomology. 2019;48(1): 1-17.

Arno J, Sorribas R, Prat M, Matas M, Pozo C, Rodriguez D. et al. Tuta absoluta, a new pest in IPM tomatoes in the Northeast of Spain. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 2009;49:203-208.

Refki E, Sadok BM, Ali BB. Study of the biotic potential of indigenous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis on Tuta absoluta pest of geothermal culture in the south of Tunisia. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2016;4(6):692-695.

Sohrabi F, Hosseini R. Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae), a predatory species of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Iran. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 2015;55(3):222-223.

Guenaoui Y, Dehlizb A. Natural enemies of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Oued Righ Region, an Arid Area of Algeria. Academic Journal of Entomology. 2015; 8(2):72-79.

Molla O, Monton H, Vanaclocha P, Beitia F, Urbaneja A. Predation by the mirids Nesidiocoris tenuis and Macrolophus pygmaeus on the tomato borer Tuta absoluta. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 2009;49: 209-214.

Gabarra R, Arno J. Results of the biological control experiences of tomato moth in greenhouse and open air cultivation in Catalonia. Phytoma Espana. 2010;217:66-68.Spanish.

Kececi M, Oztop A. Possibilities for biological control of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the western Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Entomology. 2017; 41(2):219-230.

Sanchez JA, La-spina M, Lacasa A. Numerical response of Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) preying on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in tomato crops. European Journal of Entomology. 2014;111(3):387-395.

Chhetri LB. Tomato Leaf miner (Tuta absoluta) an emerging agricultural pest: Control and management strategies: A Review. World Scientific News. 2018;114: 30-43.

Cabello T, Gamez M, Varga Z, Garay J, Carreño R, Gallego JR. et al. Selection of Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for the biological control of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouses by an entomo-ecological simulation model. Integrated Control in Protected Crops, Mediterranean Climate. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin. 2012;80: 171-176.

Lewis WJ, Vet LEM, Tumlimson JH, Van Lenteren JC, Papaj DR. Variations in parasitoid foraging behavior: Essential element of a sound biological control theory. Environmental Entomology. 1990;19(5): 1183-1193.

Zouba A, Chermiti B, Chraiet R, Mahjoubi K. Effect of two indigenous Trichogramma species on the infestation level by tomato miner, Tuta absoluta, in tomato greenhouses in the south-west of Tunisia. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection. 2013; 8(2):87-106.

Chermiti B, Abbes K. Newly adapted parasitoids of the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Tunisia: An ally in organic tomato crops. In: Kheder MB, Neuhoff D, editors. Book of abstracts crop protection management in Mediterranean Organic Agriculture. ISOFAR /MOAN /CTAB Symposium, Sousse (Tunisia); 2013.

Shiberu T, Getu E. Effects of crude extracts of medicinal plants in the management of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory and glasshouse conditions in Ethiopia. Journal of Entomology and Nematology. 2017b; 9(2):9-13.

Lakhdari W, Dehliz A, Acheuk F, Mlik R, Hammi H, Matallah S. et al. Biocontrol test against the leaf miner of tomato Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) by using entomopathogenic fungi in the Algerian Sahara. Journal Algérien des Régions Arides (JARA). 2016; 13(1):85-89.

Turkoz S, Kaskavalci G. Determination of the efficacy of some entomopathogenic nematodes against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory conditions.Turkish Journal of Entomology. 2016;40(2):175-183.

Mahmoud MF. Biology and Use of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Insect Pests Biocontrol, A Generic View. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova. 2016;4(168):85-105.

Youssef NA, Hassan GM. Bioinsecticide activity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates on tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) and their molecular identification. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2013;12(23):3699-3709.

Isman MB, Seffrin R. Natural Insecticides from the Annonaceae: A Unique Example for Developing Biopesticides. In: Singh D, editor. Advances in Plant Biopesticides. Springer, New Delhi. 2014;21-33.

Moreno SC, Carvalho GA, Picanco MC, Morais EG, Pereira RM. Bioactivity of compounds from Acmella oleracea against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and selectivity to two non‐target species. Pest Management Science. 2011;68(3):386-393.

Kona NEM, Taha AK, Mahmoud MEE. Effects of botanical extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcus) on Eggs and Larvae of Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Persian Gulf Crop Protection. 2014;3(3):41-46.

Yankova V, Valchev N, Markova D. Effectiveness of phytopesticide neem azal Т/S ® against tomato leaf miner (Tuta absoluta Meyrick) in greenhouse tomato. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;20(5):1116-1118.

Gebremariam G. Tuta absoluta: A global looming challenge in tomato production, Review Paper. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2015;5(14):57-62.

Abd El-Ghany NM, Abdel-Razek AS, Ebadah IMA, Mahmoud YA. Evaluation of some microbial agents, natural and chemical compounds for controlling tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Journal of Plant Protection Research. 2016;56(4):372-379.

Harbi A, Abbes K, Karboul H, Yousfi S, Chermiti B. Can biological and botanical insecticides combined with mass trapping control the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta in tomato crops in Tunisia? In: Kheder MB, Neuhoff D, editors. Book of abstracts crop protection management in Mediterranean Organic Agriculture. ISOFAR /MOAN /CTAB Symposium, Sousse (Tunisia). 2013;54.

Shiberu T, Getu E. Estimate of yield losses due to Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on tomato crops under glasshouse and field conditions in Western Shewa of Central Ethiopia. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies. 2017a;4(5):104-108.

Abdel-Baky FN, Al-Soqeer AA. Controlling the 2nd instars larvae of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) by simmondsin extracted from Jojoba seeds in KSA. Journal of Entomology. 2017;14(2):73-80.

Nilahyane A, Bouharroud R, Hormatallah A, Taadaouit NA. Larvicidal effect of plant extracts on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Integrated Control in Protected Crops, Mediterranean Climate. IOBC-WPRS Bulletin. 2012;80:305-310.

Ghanim NM, Ghani SBA. Controlling Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) by aqueous plant extracts. Life Science Journal. 2014;11(3):299-307.

Han P, Niu CY, Lei CL, Cui JJ, Desneux N. Use of an innovative T-tube maze assay and the proboscis extension response assay to assess sublethal effects of GM products and pesticides on learning capacity of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. Ecotoxicology. 2010;19(8):1612-1619.

Perez-Aguilar DA, Soares MA, Passos LC, Martínez AM, Pineda S, Carvalho GA. Lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on Engytatus varians (Heteroptera: Miridae), a predator of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Ecotoxicology. 2018;27(6): 719-728.

Abdel-Raheem A, Ismail A, Abdel-Rahman S, Abdel-Rhman E, Naglaa F. Efficacy of three entomopathogenic fungi on tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta in tomato crop in Egypt. Swift Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015;1(2):15-21.

Roditakis E, Vasakis E, Garcia-Vida lL, Martínez-Aguirre MDR, Rison JL, Haxaire-Lutun MO. et al. A four-year survey on insecticide resistance and likelihood of chemical control failure for tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta in the European/Asian region. Journal of Pest Science. 2018;91(1):421-435.

Abdelgaleil SA, El-bakary AS, Shawir MS, Ramadan GR. Efficacy of various insecticides against tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta, in Egypt. Applied Biological Research. 2015;17(3):297-301.

Cherif A, Harbaoui K, Zappalà L, Grissa-Lebdi K. Efficacy of mass trapping and insecticides to control Tuta absoluta in Tunisia. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection. 2018;125(1):51-61.

Abbes K, Chermiti B. Comparison of two Marks of Sex Pheromone Dispensers Commercialized in Tunisia for their Efficiency to Monitor and to Control by Mass-Trapping Tuta absoluta under Greenhouses. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection. 2011;6(2):133-148.

El-aassar MR, Soliman MHA, Elaal AAA. Efficiency of sex pheromone traps and some bio and chemical insecticides against tomato borer larvae, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) and estimate the damages of leaves and fruit tomato plant. Annals of Agricultural Science. 2015;60(1):153-156.

Proffit M, Birgersson G, Bengtsson M, Reis R, Witzgall P, Lima E. Attraction and oviposition of Tuta absoluta females in response to tomato leaf volatiles. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2011;37(6):565-574.

Portakaldali M, Oztemiz S, Kutuk H. A new host plant for Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Turkey. Journal of the Entomological Research Society. 2013;15(3):21-24.

Tissier A. Glandular trichomes: what comes after expressed sequence tags? The Plant Journal. 2012;70(1):51-68.

Ecole CC, Picanco M, Jham GN, Guedes RNC. Variability of Lycopersicon hirsutum f. typicum and possible compounds involved in its resistance to Tuta absoluta. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 2001; 1(4):249-254.

Goncalves Neto AC, Silva VF, Maluf WR, Maciel GM, Nizio DAC, Gomes LAA. et al. Resistance to the South American tomato pinworm in tomato plants with high foliar acylsugar contents. Horticultura Brasileira. 2010;28(2):203-208. Portuguese.

Maluf WR, Maciel GM, Gomes LAA, Cardoso MG, Goncalvesc LD, Silva EC. et al. Broad-spectrum arthropod resistance in hybrids between high- and low-acylsugar tomato lines. Crop Science.2010;50(2):439-450.

Silva GA, Picanco MC, Bacci L, Crespo AL, Rosado JF, Guedes RN. Control Failure Likelihood and Spatial Dependence of Insecticide Resistance in the Tomato Pinworm, Tuta absoluta. Pest Management Science. 2011;67(8):913-920.

Oliveira CMde, Andrade Júnior VCde, Maluf WR, Neiva IP, Maciel GM. Resistance of tomato strains to the moth Tuta Absoluta imparted by allelochemicals and trichome density. Ciencia e Agrotecnologia. 2012;36(1):45-52.

Maluf WR, Barbosa LV, Santa-CeciliaL VC. 2-Tridecanone-mediated mechanisms of resistance to the South American tomato pinworm Scrobipalpuloides absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Lycopersicon spp. Euphytica. 1997;93(2):189-194.

Resende JTVde, Maluf WR, Faria MV, Pfann AZ, Nascimento IRdo. Acylsugars in tomato leaflets confer resistance to the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta Meyr. Scientia Agricola. 2006;63(1):20-25.

Zeist AR, Silva AAda, Resende JTV de, Maluf WR, Gabriel A, Zanin DS. et al. Tomato Breeding for Insect-Pest resistance. In: Nyaku ST, Danquah A, editors. Recent Advances in Tomato Breeding and Production. IntechOpen, London, United Kingdom. 2018:27-46.

Goffreda JC, Mutschler MA. Inheritance of potato aphid resistance in hybrids between Lycopersicon esculentum and pennellii. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 1989;78(2):210-216.

Dias DM, Resende JTVde, Marodin JC, Matos R, Lustosa IF, Resende NCV. Acyl sugars and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) resistance in segregating populations of tomato genotypes. Genetics and Molecular Research. 2016;16(1):1-11.

Silva AA, Andrade MC, Carvalho RC, Neiva IP, Santos DC, Maluf WR. Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera in tomato genotypes obtained from the crossing of Solanum lycopersicum x Solanum galapagense. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 2016;51(7):801-808. Portuguese.

Carter CD, Sacalis JN, Gianfagna TJ. Zingiberene and resistance to Colorado potato beetle in Lycopersicon hirsutum f. hirsutum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1989;37(1):206-210.

Williams WG, Kennedy GG, Yamamoto RT, Thacker JD, Bordner J.2-Tricdecanone–A naturally occurring insecticide from the wild tomato Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum. Science.1980;207(4433):888-889.

Goncalves-Gervasio RCR, Ciociola AI, Santa-Cecilia LVC, Maluf WR. Biological aspects of Tuta Absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in two contrasting tomato genotypes regarding 2-tridecanone content in leaflets. Ciencia e Agrotecnologia. 1999;23(2):247-251.

Peralta IE, Knapp S, Spooner DM. New Species of Wild Tomatoes (Solanum Section Lycopersicon: Solanaceae) from Northern Peru. Systematic Botany. 2005; 30(2):424-434.

Peralta IE, Spooner DM, Knapp S. Taxonomy of wild tomatoes and their relatives (solanum sect. lycopersicoides, sect. juglandifolia, sect. lycopersicon; solanaceae). American Society of Plant Taxonomists, United States. 2008;84:1-186.

Sridhar V, Sadashiva AT, Rao VK, Swathi P, Gadad HS. Trichome and biochemical basis of resistance against Tuta absoluta in tomato genotypes. Plant Genetic Resources. 2019;17(3):301-305.

Bitew MK. Significant role of wild genotypes of tomato trichomes for Tuta Absoluta Resistance. Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics. 2018;2(1):1-12.

Vitta N, Estay P, Chorbadjian RA. Characterization of resistance expression in genotypes of Solanum Section Lycopersicon against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Ciencia e Investigación Agraria. 2016;43(3):366-373.

Taha AM, Afsah AFE, Fargalla FH. Evaluation of the effect of integrated control of tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta with sex pheromone and insecticides. Nature and Science. 2013;11(7):26-29.

Chailleux A, Bearez P, Pizzo lJ, Amiens-Desneux E, Ramirez-Romero R, Desneux N. Potential for combined use of parasitoids and generalist predators for biological control of the key invasive tomato pests Tuta absoluta. Journal of Pest Science. 2013;86(3):533-541.