Main Article Content
Assessment of metal pollutants bioaccumulation in amaranthus vegetables cultivated along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam was carried out with the aim of establishing the health risk associated with their consumption. Samples of amaranthus vegetables were analyzed for metal pollutants namely: Aluminum (Al), Manganese (Mn), Samarium (Sm), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Cobalt (CO), Chromium (Cr), Rubidium (Rb), Barium (Ba) Scandium (Sc), Thorium (Th), Antimony (Sb) and Vanadium (V) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques. Four samples from each study site were collected, analyzed for concentration values and compared with the available values of safe limit given by WHO/FAO. From the result obtained, the maximum concentrations for Al was 1508 ± 018 at sampled site A2, for Mn was 179 ± 1 at sampled site A1, for Mg was 19890 ± 537 at sampled site A3, for Fe was 655 ± 40 at sampled site A4, for Zn was 85 ± 4 at sampled site A3 for Co was 20 ± 3 at sampled site A2, for Cr was 88 ± 21 at sampled site A4, for Rb was 18 ± 1 at sampled site A4, for Sc was 15 ±1 at sampled site A4, for Th was 33 ± 5 at sampled site A4, for Sb was 18 ± 2 at sampled site A2 and for V was 2.3 ± 0.5 at sampled sites A2, A3. The result showed that the maximum concentration of Fe, Cr, Mn and Co exceed the values recommended by FAO/WHO of 425.5, 1.3, 25 and 0.3 ppm respectively. Therefore, the consumption of vegetables cultivated on farmland soils along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam may constitute health risk overtime as these metals can accumulate in the body.
Yang QW, Xu Y, Liu SJ, He JF, Long FY. Concentration and potential health risk of heavy metals in market vegetables in Chongqing. China Ecotoxicol Environ. Saf. 2011;74:1664-1669.
Waqas M, Li G, Khan S, Shamshad J, Reid BJ, Qamar Z, Chao C. Application of sewage sludge and sewage sludge biochar to reduce polycyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and potentially toxic elements (PTE) accumulation in tomato. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res.; 2015.
Rumteke S, Sahu BL, Dahariya NS, Patel KS, Blazhev B, Matini L. Heavy metal contamination of leafy vegetables. Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016;7:996-1004.
Hang Zhou, Wen-Tao Yang, Xin Zhou, Li Liu, Jiao-Feng Gu, Wen-Lei Wang, Jia-Ling Zou, Tao Tian, Pei-Qin Peng, Bo-Han Liao. Accumulation of heavy metals in vegetable species planted in contaminated soils and the health risk assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. and Public Health. 2016; 13:289.
Matorrell I, Perello G, Marti-Cid R, Liobet JM, Castell V, Domingo JI. Human exposure to arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead from foods in Catalonia, Spain: Temporal trend. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2011;142:309-322.
Kim H, Song B, Kim H, Park J. Distribution of two trace metals abandoned mine sites in Korea and arsenic associated health risk for the residents. Toxicol. Environ. Heal. Sci. 2009;1(2):83-90.
Ferre-Haguet N, Marti-Cid R, Schuhmmacher M, Domingo JI. Risk assessment of metals from consuming vegetables, fruits and rice grown on soils irrigated with waters of the Ebro River in Catalonia, Spain. Boil. Trace Elem. Res. 2008;123:1-14.
Khan S, Reid BJ, Li G, Zhu YG. Application of biochar to soil to reduce cancer risk via rice consumption. A case study in Miaoqiun village, Longyan, China. Environ. Int. 2014;68:154-161.
Stasinos S, Zabetakis I. The uptake of nickel and chromium from irrigation water by potatoes, carrots and onions. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;91:122-128.
Rattan RK, Datta SP, Chhonkar PK, Suribabu K, Singh AK. Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal contents in soil, crops and ground water – a case study. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment. 2005;109: 310–322.
Mapanda F, Mangwayana EN, Nyamangara J, Giller KE. The effect of long term irrigation using waste water on heavy metal content of soil under vegetable in Harare, Zimbabwe. Agricultural Ecosystem Environment. 2005; 105:153-165.
Anjula Asdeo, Sangeeta Loonker. A comparative analysis of trace metals in vegetables. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology. 2011;5:125-132.
Cheraghi M, Lorestani B, Merrikhpour H, Rouniasi N. Heavy metal risk assessment for potatoes grown on overused phosphate-fertilized soils. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2013;185:1825-1831.
Edem A, Christopher AD, Miranda I, Bassey F. Distribution of heavy metals in leaves, stems and roots of fluted pumpkins (Telfeiria occidetalis). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2009;8(3).
Jonah SA, Umar IM, Oladipo MOA, Balogun GI, Adeyemo DJ. Standardization of NIRR-1 irradiation and counting facilities for instrumental neutron activation analysis. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2006;64:818-822.
Jonah SA. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of metal contaminants in Nigeria food additives using NURR-1 facility. Proceedings of the 3rd Environmental Physics Conference, 19th – 23rd February Aswan Egypt; 2008.
Liyu W. WINSPAN 2004, a multi process gamma-ray spectrum analysis. Software CIAS Bejing China; 2004.
Ge KY. The status of nutrients and meals of the Chinese in the 1990s. Beijing People’s Hygiene Press. 1992; 415–434.
Wang X, Sato T, Xing B, Tao S. Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consump- tion of vegetables and fish. Science of the Total Environment. 2005;350:28– 37.
FAO/WHO 2005: Fruits and Vegetables for Health Report of Joint FAO/WHO Workshop Kobe, Japan, September, 1-3. 2004;39.