Assessment of Heavy Metals in Guinea Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Cultivated on Fadama Soils in Maiduguri, Nigeria

Main Article Content

P. H. Bukar
M. A. Onoja
J. A. Audu
M. U. Saidu

Abstract

River Ngadda is one of the main sources of water used by the resident of Maiduguri Metropolis The proximity of the people to the river encourages a lot of irrigation farming along the river bank during the dry season especially vegetables therefore, concentration values of heavy metals namely Aluminum, Cobalt, Iron, Lanthanum, Manganese, Chromium, Rubidium, Scandium, Samarium, Thorium, Vanadium and Zinc were determined in Guinea Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) vegetable samples obtained at six different locations on different dry season farming (Fadama) sites along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique which is a sensitive method for determination of major, minor and trace element in a matrix was used to assessed the heavy metal accumulation levels in Guinea Sorrel with the aim to establish the food safety status from heavy metals concentration levels for guinea sorrel cultivated along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam and consumed on a daily basis as compared to WHO/FAO recommended maximum permissible limit (MPL) for edible vegetables. The result obtained showed that the concentration values of Al ranged from 932 ± 18 to 3369 ± 54 ppm, Co 0 .12 ± 0.03 to 40 ± 4 ppm, La 1.00 ± 0.03 ppm to 38 ± 4 ppm, Manganese 112 ± 0.4 to 176 ± 1 ppm, Rubidium 4 ± 0.5 to 21 ± 1ppm, Sc 0.10 ± 0.007 to 27 ± 1 ppm Sm 0.106 ± 0.004 to 17.2 ± 0.4 ppm, V 1.10 ± 0.3 to 4 ± 1 ppm and Zn 17 ± 3 to 63 ± 4 ppm, and Fe 379 ± 33 ppm to 2316 ± 65 ppm. This result indicates that the maximum concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn and Co, in guinea sorrel from most of the sites were above the acceptable limits given by FAO/WHO for edible vegetables. Therefore, it is certain that there is the health risk associated with the continuous consumption of guinea sorrel vegetables cultivated from the study site and authors of this work hereby recommends that investigation of this kind should be carried out from time to time so as to know the buildup or otherwise of heavy metals in guinea sorrel cultivated in the study sites.

Keywords:
Assessment, guinea sorrel, metal pollutants, permissible limit, fadama soils.

Article Details

How to Cite
Bukar, P. H., Onoja, M. A., Audu, J. A., & Saidu, M. U. (2020). Assessment of Heavy Metals in Guinea Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Cultivated on Fadama Soils in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, 21(3), 34-42. https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i330135
Section
Original Research Article

References

Muchuweti M, Birkett JW, Chinyanga E, Zvauya R, Scrimshaw MD. Heavy metals content of vegetables irrigated with mixture of waste water and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: Implication for human health. Agril Ecos Env. 2006;1124-48.

Othman OC. Heavy metals in green vegetables and siols from vegetable gardens in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, Tanzania J.l of Scie. 2001;27:37-48.

Ramteke S, Sahu BL Dahariya NS, Patel KS, Blazhev B. and Matini L. Heavy metal contamination of leafy vegetables. J. of Env.l Protect. 2016;7:996-1004.
Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2016.77088

Hang Z, Wen-Tao Y, Xin Z, Li L, Jiao-Feng G, Wen-Lei W, Jia-Ling Z, Tao T, Pei-Qin P 1 Bo-Han L. Accumulation of heavy metals in vegetable species planted in contaminated soils and the health risk assessment: Int. J. Env. Res. and Public Health. 2016;13:289.

Deribachew B1, Amde Z, Nigussie-Dechassa R, Taddesse1 AM. Selected heavy metals in some vegetables produced through wastewater irrigation and their toxicological implications in Eastern Ethiopia African Scholarly Sci. Trust. 2012;15(3).

Bahemuka TE, Mubofu EB. Heavy metals in edible green vegetables grown along the sites of the Sinza and Msimbazi Rivers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Food Chemistry. 1991;66:63-66.

Mapanda F, Mangwayana EN, Nyamangara J, Giller KE. The effect of long term irrigation using waste water on heavy metal content of soil under vegetable in Harare, Zimbabwe Agric. Ecosystem Env. 2005;105:153- 165.

Kalagbor IA. Barisere V. Barivule G. Barile S. Bassey C. Investigation of the presence of some heavy metals in four edible vegetables, bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum), water leaf (Talinum triangulare) and fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) from a cottage farm in Port Harcourt Research J. of Env. and Earth Sci. 2014;6(1):18-24.

Alam MG, Snow ET, Tanaka A. Arsenic and heavy metal contamination of vegetables grown in Samta village, Bangladesh. Sci. Total Env. 2003;308:83- 96.

Zurera G, Mureno R, Salmeron J, Pozo R. Heavy Metal Uptake from Greenhouse Border Soil for Edible Vegetables J. of the Sci. of Food and Agric. 1989;49:307-314.

Nabulo G, Black CR, Young SD. Trace metal uptake by tropical vegetables grown on soil amended with urban sewage sludge. Env. Pollut. 2011;159:368-376.

Egila JN, Ibrahim, EG, Ibrahim, MAG. Sequential extraction of lead, copper, zinc, cadmium and chromium in soil samples from Dumpsites in Lafia, Nasarawa State Nigeria, Chem. and Materials Res; 2014.

Edorh P. Heavy metal action. TWAS Newsletter. 2007;19(2):42-45.

Okoronkwo NE, Igwe, JC, Onwuchekwe, C. Risk and health implication of soils polluted for crops production. Afric. J. of Biotech. 2005;4:1521-1524.

Okoronkwo NE, Odeelam SA, Ano OA. Levels of toxic elements in soil of abandoned waste dumpsite. Afric. J. of Biotech. 2006;5(13):241-1244.

Reyes-Gutiérrez R Romero-Guzmán ET, Cabral-Prieto A, Rodríguez-Castillo R. Characterization of chromium in contaminated soil studied by SEM, EDS, XRD and mössbauer spectroscopy. J.l of Minerals & Mat. Charact. & Eng. 2007;7(1): 59-70.

Jonah SA, Umar IM, Oladipo MOA, Balogun I, Adeyemo DJ. Standardization of NIRR-1 irradiation and counting facilities for instrumental neutron activation analysis, Appl. Rad. and Isot. 2006;64:818- 822.

Jonah SA. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of metal contaminants in Nigeria food additives using NIRR-1 facility, Proceedings of the 3rd Env. Physics Conf., Aswan Egypt; 2008.

Liyu W. WINSPAN. A multi process Gamma-ray spectrum analysis software CIAS Bejing China; 2004.

Rattan RK, Datta SP, Chhonkar PK, Suribabu K, Singh AK. Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal contents in soil, crops and ground water – a case study. Agric., Ecos and Env. 2005;109:310–322.

Ge KY. The status of nutrients and meals of the Chinese in the 1990s. Beijing People’s Hygiene Press. 1992;415– 434.

Wang X, Sato T, Xing B, Tao S. Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via Consumption of Vegetables and Fish. Sci. of the Total Env. 2005;350:28–37.

FAO/WHO. Fruits and vegetables for health report of joint FAO/WHO workshop Kobe, Japan. 2005;39:1-3.