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Addition of soil with various amendments to boost up the nutrient content and moisture holding capacity is necessary for improving the crop productivity. Among the various amendments, compost prepared from the crop residues attracted much attention in recent years. The crop residues used as feedstock are added with different bulking materials such as rice husk and sewage sludge. In addition to these, termite mound soil which is available in plenty in tropical countries is found to be a suitable bulking material and is added with crop residues to obtain nutrient rich compost. In this paper we reviewed researches carried out on the characteristics, microbial diversity and organic matter degrading enzymes in termite mound soil. Further, the research carried out on the characteristics of compost amended with termite mound soil and its effect on crop productivity is also reviewed with the available literature. Majority of the investigations concluded that termite mound soil possessed more microbial population with a huge array of organic matter degrading enzymes. Few studies monitored the nutrient content of the soil and water holding capacity of the soil and crop yield when termite mound soil was used as a soil amendment. Limited studies were conducted using termite mound soil as a bulking material to compost crop residues. Based on the outcome of various studies, it is understood that the termite mound soil might be used as a soil amendment to increase growth and yield of crops.
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