Adoption of Napier Grass [Cenchrus purpureus (Schumach.) Morrone] among Livestock Farmers in Botswana: Challenges and Future Prospects
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International,
In order to assess the current adoption level of Napier grass [Cenchrus purpureus (Schumach.)] in Botswana as well as identify barriers hindering its uptake and effective use, data collection was done through a field survey of purposively selected sample of livestock farmers in North East District and adjacent parts of Central District. Findings of the study indicated that even though farmers’ overall perception towards Napier grass was positive, adoption levels were still low. Numerous challenges in Napier grass production included recurrent droughts, non-irrigation, limited access to planting/propagation material, shortage of labor, poor agronomic practices as well as lack of technical knowledge on management and utilization of the fodder grass. Even though adoption levels are still low, opportunities do exist to accelerate future uptake. For example, farmers proposed strategic interventions such as well packaged and targeted education on Napier grass production, subsidized borehole drilling, equipping and water reticulation for irrigation of fodder crops in their farming areas and more technical support from extension officers. Going forward, in order to achieve increased impact with Napier grass, the current extension approach in dissemination and adoption can therefore be effectively targeted primarily at farmers likely to accept and use the technology, instead of expecting every farmer within an agro-ecological zone to comprehensively implement the recommended technology disregarding feasibility, profitability and acceptability of such introduced fodder technology to individual farmers.
- extension agents
- Napier grass
- technology dissemination
How to Cite
Anderson WF, Dien BS, Brandon SK, Peterson JD. Assessment of bermudagrass and bunch grasses as feedstock for conversion to ethanol. In: Adney WS, McMillan JD, Mielenz J, Klasson KT, editors. Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Humana Press; 2007.
Khan, ZR, Midega CA, Wadhams LJ, Pickett JA, Mumuni A. Evaluation of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) varieties for use as trap plants for the management of African stemborer (Busseola fusca) in a push–pull strategy. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 2007;124(2):201-211.
Boonman JG. East Africa’s grasses and fodders: Their ecology and husbandry. Dortrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1993.
Orodho AB. The role and importance of Napier grass in the smallholder dairy industry in Kenya. Food and Agric. Org. (Rome); 2006.
(Accessed 24 June, 2020)
Singh BP, Singh HP, Obeng E. Elephant grass. In: Singh BP, editor. Biofuel Crops: Production, Physiology and Genetics. Fort Valley, GA, CAB International; 2013.
Statistics Botswana. 2017 Annual Agricultural Survey. Gaborone, Government Printers; 2019.
Animal Production and Range Research Division (APRRD) 2004/2005 Annual Report. Gaborone, Government Printers; 2005.
Aganga AA, Omphile UJ, Thema T, Baitshotlhi JC. Chemical composition of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) at different stages of growth and Napier grass silages with additives. J. Biol. Sci. 2005; 5(4):493-496.
Nowak P. Why farmers adopt production technology: Overcoming impediments to adoption of crop residue management techniques will be crucial to implementation of conservation compliance plans. J. Soil Wat Cons. 1992; 47(1):14-16.
Rogers EM. Diffusion of innovations. New York, Free Press; 1995.
Meijer SS, Catacutan D, Ajayi OC, Sileshi GW, Nieuwenhuis M. The role of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions in the uptake of agricultural and agroforestry innovations among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Int. J. Agric. Sus. 2015;13(1):40-54.
Vanclay F, Lawrence G. Farmer rationality and the adoption of environmentally sound practices; a critique of the assumptions of traditional agricultural extension. Eur. J. Agric. Educ. Ext. 1994;1(1):59-90.
Tladi-Sekgwama FM. An overview of agricultural extension in Botswana and needed reforms. J. Agric. Ext. Rural Dev. 2019;11(3):67-77.
Oladele OI, Rantseo K. Determinants of cattle farmers’ perceived relevance of livestock technologies in Botswana. Liv. Res. Rural Dev. 2010:22(5).
(Accessed 16 July, 2020)
Monametsi NF, Makhabu SW, Mogotsi K. The effects of cattle-goat mixed grazing on steer performance and rangeland condition in semi-arid north eastern Botswana. Bots. J. Agric. Appl. Sci. 2012; 8:67-74.
Madzonga Z, Mogotsi K. Production, harvest and conservation of Lablab purpureus (L) sweet forage in semi-arid livestock regions: The case of east central Botswana. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 2014;24: 1085-1090.
Bosekeng LC, Mogotsi K, Bosekeng G. Farmers’ perception of climate change and variability in the North-East District of Botswana. Liv. Res. Rural Dev. 2020: 32(1).
(Accessed 6 May, 2020)
Mogotsi K, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM. The role of drought among agro-pastoral communities in a semi-arid environment: the case of Botswana. J. Arid Environ. 2013;91:38-44.
Snyders PJM, Orodho AB, Wouters AP. Effect of manure application methods on yield and quality of Napier grass. KARI, National Animal Husbandry Research Centre; 1992.
Muyekho FN, Mose L, Cheruiyot DT. Development and transfer of forage production technologies for smallholder dairying: case studies of participatory evaluation of species and methods of establishment in western Kenya. Trop. Gras. 2003;37(4):251-256.
Nyambati EM, Lusweti CM, Muyekho FN, Mureithi JG. Up-scaling Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) production using Tumbukiza method in smallholder farming systems in Northwestern Kenya. J. Agric. Ext. Rural Dev. 2011;3(1):1-7.
Negawo AT, Teshome A, Kumar A, Hanson J, Jones CS. Opportunities for Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) improvement using molecular genetics. Agronomy. 2017;7(2):28.
Ferguson JE, Sauma G. Towards more forage seed for small farmers in Latin America. Proc. XVII Int. Grassl. Con. 1993:1751-1756.
Mwangi DM, Wambugu C. Adoption of forage legumes: the case of Desmodium intortum and Calliandra calothyrsus in central Kenya. Trop. Gras. 2003;37(4): 227-238.
Koobonye M, Maule BV, Mogotsi K. Mechanical scarification and hot water treatments enhance germination of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) seeds. Liv. Res. Rural Dev. 2018;30.
(Accessed 10 August 2020)
Ojiem JO, De Ridder N, Vanlauwe B, Giller KE. Socio-ecological niche: A conceptual framework for integration of legumes in smallholder farming systems. Int. J. Agric. Sus. 2006;4(1):79-93.
Roothaert R, Horne P, Stür W. Integrating forage technologies on smallholder farms in the upland tropics. Trop. Gras. 2003; 37:295-303.
Voh JP. A study of factors associated with the adoption of recommended farm practices in a Nigerian village. Agric. Admin. 1982;9(1):17-27.
Kebede Y, Gunjal K, Coffin G. Adoption of new technologies in Ethiopian agriculture: The case of Tegulet‐Bulga District, Shoa Province. Agric. Econ. 1990;4(1):27-43.
Omollo EO, Wasonga OV, Elhadi MY, Mnene WN. Determinants of pastoral and agro-pastoral households’ participation in fodder production in Makueni and Kajiado Counties, Kenya. Pastoralism. 2018;8(1): 1-10.
Tladi FM. Job content and training needs of agricultural extension agents in south-central Botswana. J. Int. Agric. Ext. Edu. 2004;11(3):33-39.
Ramorathudi MV, Terblanche SE. Identification of factors that influence the performance of extension management systems in Kweneng and Southern Districts of Botswana. S. Afr. J. Agric. Ext. 2018;46(2):69-78.
Abstract View: 732 times
PDF Download: 364 times