Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International (2394-1073)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAERI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of Agriculture and Ecology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International 2394-1073 Adoption of Napier Grass [Cenchrus purpureus (Schumach.) Morrone] among Livestock Farmers in Botswana: Challenges and Future Prospects <p>In order to assess the current adoption level of Napier grass [<em>Cenchrus</em> <em>purpureus</em> (Schumach.)] in Botswana as well as identify barriers hindering its uptake and effective use, data collection was done through a field survey of purposively selected sample of livestock farmers in North East District and adjacent parts of Central District. Findings of the study indicated that even though farmers’ overall perception towards Napier grass was positive, adoption levels were still low. Numerous challenges in Napier grass production included recurrent droughts, non-irrigation, limited access to planting/propagation material, shortage of labor, poor agronomic practices as well as lack of technical knowledge on management and utilization of the fodder grass. Even though adoption levels are still low, opportunities do exist to accelerate future uptake. For example, farmers proposed strategic interventions such as well packaged and targeted education on Napier grass production, subsidized borehole drilling, equipping and water reticulation for irrigation of fodder crops in their farming areas and more technical support from extension officers. Going forward, in order to achieve increased impact with Napier grass, the current extension approach in dissemination and adoption can therefore be effectively targeted primarily at farmers likely to accept and use the technology, instead of expecting every farmer within an agro-ecological zone to comprehensively implement the recommended technology disregarding feasibility, profitability and acceptability of such introduced fodder technology to individual farmers.</p> K. Mogotsi M. Koobonye K. Galesekwe M. Odubeng ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-05 2020-09-05 16 28 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i830158 Insecticidal Activity of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) Aqueous Extracts against the Grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) <p><em>Ageratum conyzoides</em> (Asteraceae) is an annual plant with insecticidal activity against some insect pests. The present study was designed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of aqueous extracts (infusion and maceration) of <em>A. conyzoides</em> against the pest grasshopper <em>Zonocerus variegatus </em>(Orthoptera, Pyrgomorphidae). Concentrations of 0, 10, 30, 100 &amp; 300 µg/ml were prepared and administrated through injection to grasshoppers. Mortality rate was recorded for adult grasshoppers each day until the 9<sup>th</sup> day of treatment. Results revealed a significant increase (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) of mortality rate with increasing concentrations of the two plant extracts. Plant extracts at 300 µg/ml induced 100.00 ± 0.00 percent mortality of adults <em>Z. variegatus</em> after 4 and 5 days for <em>A. conyzoides</em> infusion and maceration respectively. No mortality was registered after treatment with 0 &amp; 10 µg/ml of the two plant extracts. Male mortality rate tended to be higher than that of female at the same concentration. Also, infusion tended to significantly increase (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05) mortality rate than maceration at the same concentration. Phytochemicals screening have shown that the presence of saponins, tannins, triterpenoids and alkaloids in the <em>A. conyzoides</em> aqueous extracts may be responsible for the insecticidal activity of this plant. These phytochemicals may therefore be exploited and serve as suitable alternatives to synthetic insecticides against the grasshopper <em>Z. variegatus</em>.</p> Dongmo Tonleu Ingrid Seino Richard Akwanjoh Manjeli Yacouba ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-09 2020-10-09 29 36 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i830159 Effects of Season Variation on Water, Feed, Milk Yield and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows in Smallholder Farms in Eastern Africa <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The smallholder dairy industry in Eastern Africa continues to be characterized by seasonality driven milk fluctuations and reproductive performance of dairy cows. In this review, we present important effects of changes in seasons on water, feed quantity and quality, milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy cows in smallholder dairy farms.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We considered peer-reviewed publications from 1990 to 2019, and extracted any information pertaining to the effects and intensity of changes in seasons and implications on water, feed quality and quantity, milk yield and reproductive performance.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Seasonal variation in rainfall, characteristic of the East Africa region, is strongly reflected in cropping and feeding calendars. Hence, 305-days lactation milk production per cow in Eastern Africa ranges from 850-3150 kg/cow/year, which has not increased, partly because of lack of improvement in nutrition and management, but also due to slow genetic selection of breeds that matches available feed to milk yield and reproductive performance. High milk fluctuations arise mostly because of farmers’ dependence on rainfall for feed production and rarely make provisions for preserving fodder for the dry season, as there isn’t adequate forage (fodder and pasture) even during the wet season.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> For the smallholder dairy farmers to remain competitive, it is important to increase the dairy value chain capability to manage implications of changes in seasons on milk yield and reproduction. Therefore, in order to overcome the current seasonal changes, we have discussed technological interventions in adoption of practical, sustainable farmer-led strategies for optimizing water and feed production, milk yield and reproductive performance in Eastern Africa. We have also identified knowledge gaps where research is needed to guide dairy value chain stakeholders on how to ameliorate current seasonal changes or that we expect will occur in the future.</p> Ongadi Patrick Mudavadi Mpolya Abraham Emmanuel Gachuiri Charles Muyekho Francis Namasake Lukuyu Adubwa Bernard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-28 2020-08-28 1 15 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i830157