Mukundpur forest range is situated in Amarpatan Tahsil in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh India. The species of 58 trees, 28 shrubs, 08 lianas, 20 herbs and 19 grasses (total 133) had been found by using vegetation sampling. By evaluating IVI (Important Value Index) for the species of various vegetation types, the threat and conservation status was assessed by Normal Distribution Principle. The richness of species of study area was assessed by taking the two parameters i.e. number of species and their average IVI between various vegetation types and threat and conservation categories. The result of the richness of diversity in numbers and their IVI for different vegetation types were expressed in terms of significant or non-significant. The present study provided the current status of species diversity current diversity and it also designing procedure for optimal species diversity in the study area by developing various alternative strategies to assess the number of species and their IVI between various vegetation types with optimum species diversity and minimising the threat parameters simultaneously. The study area was the forest area of 111.55 km2 of Mukundpur range of Satna Forest division, Madhya Pradesh, India. Field work was carried out during October 2015 to January 2016.The study about the current status reveals that there was a nonsignificant richness of species diversity between various vegetation types and threat and conservation categories when the number of the species was considered as a parameter. The species diversity was in the significant state of threat and conservation categories, but same was insignificant between various vegetation types when average IVI of the species was considered as a other parameter. The optimisation technique was used to find out the number and average IVI of the species between various vegetation types (Trees, Shrubs, Lianas, Herbs and Grasses) by making the variance significant. The same technique is used to reduce the threat status between various threat and conservation categories by making the variance of number and average IVI of the species as non significant. The optimal number species of 58 tree, 28 shrubs, 30 lianas, 20 herbs, 19 grasses (Total 155) and optimal average IVI between threat and conservation category 1 were assessed as 23.073, 19.284, 9.085, 25.321 and 10.067 within trees, shrubs, lianas, herbs and grasses respectively with total of 86.83 were assessed to make the significant diversity and at the same time maintaining the non significant status of threat and conservation status. The number of lianas species should be increased from 8 to 30 which lowered the average IVI of the species from 44.125 to the average value of 9.085.
The experiment was conducted in the Central Farm, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka from November 2015 to February 2016 with the aim of investigating the growth and yield attributes of cauliflower as influenced by different micronutrients and plant spacing. The experiment consisted of two factors, such as Factor A: Plant spacing (3 levels) as- S1: 50 cm × 50 cm, S2: 50 cm × 40 cm, S3: 50 cm × 30 cm and Factor B: Levels of micronutrients (4 levels) as- T0: B0Mo0 (control), T1: B1.0Mo0.5 kg/ha, T2: B2.0Mo1.0kg/ha, T3: B3.0Mo1.5 kg/ha. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. All the studied parameters were significantly influenced by micronutrients and plant spacing. In case of plant spacing, the highest curd yield (39.89 t/ha) was found from S2 and the lowest curd yield (35.00 t/ha) was found from S1. For micronutrients, T2 treatment produced the highest curd yield (46.85 t/ha) and the lowest (24.41 t/ha) was from control. In case of combined effect, the highest curd yield (51.56 t/ha) was obtained from S2T2 and the lowest curd yield (20.33 t/ha) from S1T0. Therefore, it can be suggested that the highest curd yield and good shape cauliflower curd can be obtained in plant spacing 50 cm × 40 cm with the combined application of B 2.0 kg/ha and Mo 1.0 kg/ha.
The fish diversity of River Fete, Benue State, Nigeria was investigated monthly between January to December, 2016 to determine its status, management strategies as well as providing a base line data for monitoring anthropogenic changes prompted by human induced factors and river aging. Fish samples were collected from artisanal fisher men using cast nets, lift nets and traps. Two way ANOVA was used to analyze the result using GLM procedures of the statistical analysis system (SAS). The result showed that 28 fish species belonging to 23 families were recorded from the river. The family Cichlidae dominated the fish population of the river followed by Mormyridae and Bagridae which were both represented by four species each. Other families such as Claridae, Cyprinidae, Citharinidae and Mockokidae were represented by two species. About six families identified recorded only one species of fish, these include; Characidae, Malapteruridae, Gymnarchidae, Centropomidae, Lepidoserinidae and Osteoglosidae. Significant variations were observed in the fish diversity by season and stations with most of the species being highly abundant in wet season. The hydrology, water residence time, precipitation, evaporation and bedrock chemistry were some of the factors identified to influence the variations. H. niloticus and Barbus occidentalis were two fish species found to be endangered and which need conservation. Various management strategies such as stocking of indigenous fish species, implementation of fishing regulations, periodic limnological monitoring and adoption of best limnological – mediated management practices were suggested for effective utilization and sustainable exploitation of the river water and its resource.
The combined effect of pawpaw leaf meal (PLM) and poultry droppings meal (PDM) as protein sources in snail feed on the performance of Archachatina marginata (Giant African Land Snail) snail was investigated in the Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty-six (126), six (6) weeks old snails and average weight 10.34 g were used for a 12 weeks experiment in a completely randomised feeding trial. Five experimental snail diets (Diets II-VI) containing at least 20% crude protein were prepared using PLM and PDM in ratios 4:0, 3:1, 2:2, 1:3, and 0:4), respectively. The diet I is modified Cobbinah;s snail feed concentrate, and diet VII is fresh pawpaw leaf (control diet). Proximate composition, the progression in weight, feed intake, and shell dimensions of the snails were determined. The maximum weight increase was obtained in snail fed with the diet I while minimum weight increase recorded for snails on diet IV. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) ranged from 1.45 to 2.21, with snails on diet II recording the highest FCR. The feed intake and shell length gain of the snail on diet II are significantly higher than those on other diets. The highest shell width increase was recorded in snails that consumed diet VII. The meat of snails which fed on diet I have the highest protein value. Snails which fed on diet IV gave maximum ash content, while those fed on diet III have the least value. The result of the present study showed that highest growth performance and feed utilisation for A. marginata snail was favored by diet I. The compounded diets consisting of PLM and PDM as protein sources were efficiently utilised by A. marginata snail more than the control diet (fresh pawpaw leaf).
Effective termite management strategies should involve at least one of the following:
Provision of adequate food to deter termites from attacking crops.
Enhancing multiplication and proliferation of natural enemies (e.g. nematodes, fungus, bacteria, virus, ants, frogs, beetles and spiders).
Reduce vulnerability of crops through improved crop nutrition and water supply for vigorous growth.
Integration of termite-repelling crops and plants in the farms.
Killing of termites e.g. use of termicide, physical destruction of the mound, killing of the queen.
In areas regularly affected by termites, scouting and control should be incorporated as regular components of seasonal crop production trainings.
Particular emphasis should be given to non-chemical practices which have significant co-benefits such as enhanced soil health.
Effective and long-lasting control is based on combination of chemical and non-chemical practices – dig out mounds, kill the queen then spray with termicide. For fields which experience termite attacks every season, farmers should dress seed with termicide before planting. These chemicals should be used judiciously to reduce negative impact to the environment and health risks to the farmers.