Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Temperature Regimes on Morphological Development of Selected Canola (Brassica napus) Genotypes

J. S. Nwogha, G. A. Agenbag, J. E. Obidiegwu, C. O. Amadi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2018/v17i230042

Seven canola genotypes selected from early and mid-maturing groups of canola genotypes presently planted in the Western Cape canola production area were grown in 3 litre plastic bags filled with a mixture of sand and compost at ratio of 1:1 and irrigated with fully balanced nutrient solution at EC=2.0 in two glasshouses at night/day temperature regimes of 10/15˚C and 15/20˚C. Plant heights were measured at 14 days interval from 28 to 84 days after planting (DAP). Plants were sampled for leaf area (LA) and above ground dry mass (DM) at budding, flowering and seed physiological maturity stages. Plant growth rates (PGR) from planting to budding, from budding to flowering and from flowering to physiological maturity growth stages were calculated. Relative growth rates (RGR) and net assimilation rates (NAR) from budding to flowering and from flowering to physiological maturity stages were also calculated. Days after planting, GDD and PTU at budding, flowering and physiological maturity were correlated with leaf area, dry mass, number of pods plant-1   and pod dry mass plant-1 at budding, flowering and physiological maturity stages to determine whether there were relationships between the variables. The study showed that by increasing night/day temperature from 10/15˚C to 15/20˚C plant height, number of leaves plant-1 at budding stage, leaf area at budding , plant growth rate (PGR) from planting to budding stage and relative growth rate (RGR) from budding to flowering stage were increased. However, PGR from budding to physiological maturity, RGR from flowering to physiological maturity, net assimilation rate (NAR) from budding to flowering stage, leaf area at flowering and physiological maturity stages, as well as  number of flower stems, number of pods  plant-1, above ground total dry mass at flowering and physiological maturity  stages were  decreased. Pod dry mass at physiological maturity decreased by 22.24% to 40.35% for different genotypes which clearly demonstrated the variations in sensitivity of canola genotypes to increasing night/day temperatures and also indicates that canola crop can be genetically improved for heat tolerance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Yield and Quality Parameters of Lecithin Produced from Some Elite Varieties of Nigerian Sesame (Sesamum indicum)

A. Y. Mumeen, E. Onotugoma, M. C. Onwuegbu, A. M. Shema, S. Salihu, E. G. Okevwe, A. O. Abdulrafiu

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2018/v17i230043

Lecithin is usually derived as a by-product of vegetable oil processing. It is also known as phosphotidycholine, it is important for its wide use in food manufacturing, product development as well as pharmaceutical products formulation. The quantity of lecithin being imported into Nigeria for use in several industrial sectors is steadily increasing; the attendant effects of such huge importation can be minimized by sourcing lecithin from Nigerian varieties of oil bearing seeds such as sesame. Sequel to a careful selection of seeds, oil was extracted from four varieties of Nigerian sesame using soxlet extraction method. Lecithin was later produced from the extracted oil through oil degumming process. Lecithin quality parameters such as Iodine Values (I.V), Peroxide Values (P.V), Saponification Value (Sap.V), Acid Values (A.V) and Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values were subsequently evaluated for all oil and lecithin samples extracted. Percentage yield of lecithin isolated from the selected varieties of sesame namely: NCRIBEN 01M, NCRIBEN O2M, NCRIBEN 04E and NCRIBEN 05E: are 3.57%, 3.64 % 2.85% and 3.14% respectively. Values of some quality indices such as the iodine values, peroxide values, Acid Values and Free Fatty Acid evaluated in this research project were found to fall within the FAO/WHO recommendations for lecithin. This study has therefore, contributed to the availability of detailed information from the characteristics stand point and quality index of oil extracted from the selected varieties of sesame and lecithin isolated from their oils. This study therefore concludes that lecithin may be sourced from some Nigerian varieties of sesame and their quality may be enough to meet various industrial applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agricultural Production Activities, Profit Efficiency Nexus Livelihood Diversification among Public Servant Households in Kwara State Nigeria

Y. U. Oladimeji, A. M. Ajao, Z. Abdulsalam

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2018/v17i230045

Agricultural production activities are gradually becoming important livelihood diversification among urban and peri-urban households whose main occupation is public service. The study focuses on livelihood diversification through agricultural production activities among public servants in Kwara State, Nigeria. Both primary and secondary data (production records) were collected. Three hundred and thirty public servants comprising 150 fish farmers, 60 broiler farmers and 120 arable crop farmers were randomly selected through field survey with the aid of structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Herfindahl‐Hirshman index (HHI), net margin and stochastic frontier profit function regression analysis. Fish, broiler and arable crop production were profitable with mean profit of ₦132,260 per 1000 fingerlings, ₦912 per bird and ₦89,564 per ha and mean profit efficiency of 72.6%, 74% and 68% respectively. The HHI of diversity revealed a significant level of income diversification to agricultural production activities. These contributed about 40%, 36.5% and 29% to total household income of public servants who engaged in fish farming, broiler production and arable cropping respectively. Public servant farmers should form a formidable group to enjoy economic of scale to purchase agricultural inputs and should be given adequate training through their cooperative by inviting resource personnel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economics of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goat Production among Small Holder Farmers in Humid and Tropical Region of the World

S. I. Ume

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2018/v17i230046

Economics of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat Production by Small Holder Farmers in humid and tropical region was studied using 120 farmers selected from southeast states of Nigeria. The information generated for the study comprised farmers’ socio-economic characteristics and other quantitative variables relevant to the study using mainly structured questionnaire and personal interviewed, descriptive Statistic such as percentage response and budgetary technique were used to address the objectives of the study. The mean of age of the farmer was 54 years, level of education was 11 years, while years of rearing experience and house hold size were 10 and 7 respectively. The result of net farm income analysis revealed that an average total cost of goat production was  $127,517 per 12 herds of goat with cost of purchasing breeding kids input resource constituting the highest (30%) of total costs of production. A positive net farm income of $23938 was realized by average goat farmer in the study area, indicating the profitability of the enterprise. The identified problems limiting goat production in the region were poor access credit, problem of pests and diseases, seasonality of forage, theft problem, poor extension contact, poor nutrition of confined animal and technology too costly. There are needs for policies options and measures to enhance farmers’ access to education, access to credit, extension services, and access to drugs at subsidized rates to ensure goat production by the farmers.

Open Access Review Article

Genetic Variability for Flowering Time, Maturity and Drought Tolerance in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]: A Review Paper

M. S. Alidu

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2018/v17i230044

Background: Cowpea plays a critical role in the lives of millions of people in Africa and other parts of the developing world, where it is a major source of dietary protein that nutritionally complements staple low-protein cereal and tuber crops. It is a valuable and dependable commodity that produces income for farmers and traders. Objective: To review related research work on the genetic variability for time to flowering, maturity and drought tolerance in cowpea.

Data Source: Searches were made from the following databases and archives; International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), The Essential Electronic Agricultural Library (TEAL), Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA) (FAO), AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library), AGRIS - Agricultural Sciences and Technology (FAO), CAS - Chemical Abstracts (ACS), DOAJ - Directory of Open Access Journals, CABI, Euphytica, Elsevier, Research Alert, Scopus and CGIAR, Plant Genetics and Breeding Database, Crop Science Database, Plant Genetics and Breeding Database, data base repositories, using the terms “genetic variability”, “drought”, “tolerance”, “ time to flowering and maturity”, and “cowpea” individually or in combination to identify literature published in English language between January 1990 to January 2018.

Methods: The review was carried out using the above search terms. Research papers were critically reviewed, relevant data extracted, and a narrative synthesis was conducted to determine the relevant papers.

Results: In all 150 papers met the inclusion criteria. Collections were from varied background; Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin Americas.

Conclusion: Despite research studies on cowpea and drought, there appears to be limited such research findings on the time to flowering, and maturity in relations to drought tolerance in cowpea in Ghana, suggesting more research in this part of the world.