Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Economic Factors Influencing the Choice of Cooking Energy Sources in Sokoto Metropolis

S. B. Shamaki, L. N. Bucham

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i130047

The study was designed to assess different sources of energy and to establish relationship between socio-economic factors that influence the choice of energy types within Sokoto metropolis. The study area was divided into three locations based on the income level as low, medium and high income classes. Forty respondents were randomly selected from each location thereby having a total of 120 respondents for the study. Variables of interest included choice of energy, types of energy sources, factors that influence such use and preferences for the different types of energy. Semi structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) and chi square test of association were used for data analysis. The findings showed that households use different energy sources daily and some factors were found to influence the choice of energy used in homes (electricity 0.5%, cooking gas 42.5%, fuelwood/charcoal 33.5%, and kerosene 19.2%). Such factors include area of residence (chi-square value 14.53 and p- value 0.024), educational level (chi-square value 49.246 and p-value 0.000) and income (chi-square value 14.950 and p-value 0.021). Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that households in Sokoto state metropolis tend to climb the energy ladder from low energy types to modern energy types and it was recommended that households be sensitized on the negative effects of the traditional energy sources on the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Soil Compaction and Bulk Density on the Growth and Yield of Soybean (Glycine max) on Sandy Clay Loam Soil of the Semi-arid Region of Northern Nigeria as Influenced by Tractor Wheel Traffic

Abdu Dauda, Bukar Usman

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i130048

Soil compaction from farm machinery is an environmental problem. The effect of compaction on plant growth and yield depends on the crop grown and the environmental conditions that crop encounters. The effect of compaction from tractor traffic on soybean (Glycine max), variety TGX1448-2E, on a sandy clay loam soil in the semi-arid region of northern Nigeria was investigated for two growing seasons, 2015 and 2016. A randomized complete block design of the field of plots with treatments of 0,5,10, 15 and 20 passes of a tractor MF 390 was used. Each treatment was replicated three times. The soil bulk density, penetration resistance and soil moisture content for each applied load were measured and the yield from each treatment was determined.  Agronomic treatments were kept the same for all plots in both 2015 and 2016. Results showed increased soil bulk density, penetration resistance and soil moisture content with increased tractor passes. Highest grain yield was obtained at 5 tractor passes with a mean bulk density of 1.76 Mgm,-3 penetration resistance 1.70 MPa and moisture content 13.37% with a mean yield of 2568 kgha-1 and lowest was obtained from 20 tractor passes were 340 kgha-1. Statistical models were used to predict yield as a function of bulk density, penetration resistance,   moisture content, contact pressure, and a number of tractor traffic passes. Grain yield with respect to moisture content gave the best yield prediction (r2 = 0.94).           

Open Access Original Research Article

Costs and Returns Analysis of Maize Wholesaling in Gombe Metropolis, Nigeria

Suleiman Mohammeda, R. M. Sani, S. Idi, Nasiru Abubakar

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i130049

The study examined the costs and returns of maize wholesaling in Gombe metropolis, Nigeria. Using questionnaire, a time series data were collected from 120 randomly sampled traders and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and net farm income analyses. Results showed that 99.1%, 98.2% and 65.4% of sampled traders were male, married and farmers respectively. Similarly, their average age, marketing experience, household size and capital level were 39.5 years, 12.6 years, 9 persons and N 422, 500.00 respectively. Further, it was found that respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics were significantly correlated with one another except between education and capital level. Furthermore, the marketing margin, net income and return per each Naira invested were found to be N503.84, N227.00 per 100 Kg and 0.06 respectively, while the efficiency value was 181.99%. Finally, while maize marketing in the study area was found to be profitable and efficient, there is need for further improvement, such as in the area of female involvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Patterns of Leaf Litter Decomposition as Related to Litter Traits in the Sudano-Guinea Savannahs of Ngaoundere, Cameroon

A. Ibrahima, P. Souhore, A. A Mang A Menick

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i130050

Litter decomposition processes are poorly studied in the savannahs. Leaf litter decomposition of the twenty-four contrasting plant species including trees, shrubs and grass species, was studied in the sudano-guinea savannahs of Ngaoundere, Cameroon. The litterbag technique was used to assess litter mass loss and single exponential model was adopted to estimate decay rate constants. Initial litter thickness varied from 0.02 to 1.11 mm, area from 4.27 to 245.89 mm2, sclerophyllous index from 0.01 to 1.75 mg.mm-2, density from 0.21 to 87.50 mg.mm-3, and specific mass area from 0.57 to 185.46 mm2.mg-1. Litter cellulose content varied from 3.79 to 11.84%; lignin from 2.84 to 8.12%, NDF from 21.35 to 80.41%, and total phenolic compounds from 0.47 to 17.76%. During the 52 weeks of the field experiment, mean dry mass remaining of litter samples was significantly between 8.05 and 75.22% of initial litter dry mass for C. papaya and C. regidus respectively. Litter decomposition rate constant (k) significantly ranged from 0.003 (C. regidus) to 0.121 %.week-1 (C. papaya). Litter mass remaining (LMR) was positively related to thickness (R2 = 0.605, P<0.01), Sclerophyllous index (R2 = 0.446, P<0.05), Specific mass area (R2 = 0.569, P<0.001), lignin (R2 = 0.631, P<0.01) and phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.618, P<0.001). The litter decomposition rate constant (k) was negatively related to thickness (R2 = 0.602, P<0.01, n=12), Sclerophyllous index (0.542; P<0.05), Specific mass area (0.419; P<0.05) and phenolic compounds (0.530; P<0.01). It can be concluded that litter decomposition is affected by plant species diversity, plant groups and physico-chemical traits of litters in the sudano-guinea savannahs of Ngaoundere, Cameroun. These preliminary results would contribute to understanding the mechanism of litter decomposition in general and in these savannahs in particular.

Open Access Review Article

Algaeculture: An Alternative to Solving Energy Sustainability Crises in Developing Countries

Ojo-Awo Adeyinka, A. Phillip

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i130051

There is an impending need to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels in these areas of the world considering the ever depleting conventional oil resources and climate change, induced by greenhouse gas emissions. Algae are currently being prompted as a potential next generation bioenergy feedstock due to the fact that they do not compete with food or feed crops. They also produce much higher areal oil yields than the current agricultural crops. They can be produced on barren lands and have broad bioenergy potentials as they can be used to produce liquid transportation and heating fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol, or anaerobically digested to produce biogas. Algae are fast growing organisms capable of fixing high amount of carbondioxide through photosynthesis to produce biomass. Diverse technologies are currently being pursued to produce algae for bioenergy applications. The successful culture of algae could serve as a solution to the impending energy crises in both developed and developing countries.