Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Fish Farming on the Fish Growth in Five Farms of the Central-Western of Côte d'Ivoire

Kouassi Sylvain Konan, N’golo Ouattara, Moustapha Diaby, Zana Ibrahim Coulibaly, Kouakou Yao

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i230052

This is a comparative study for understanding the low fish production in the Goh region (Central-Western of Côte d'Ivoire) through the management of the five main fish farms. The study was carry out during 35 days, from August to September 2017. The farmers were all over 45 years old men and sexing fish late. The by-products (rice bran and low flour) were used for feeding on all farms, but only Bahompa 2 farm, makes a supplement with the industrial granulated food. Fish growth parameters have been taken with 200 individuals of Oreochromis niloticus per farm (1000 fish). The main performance indicator such as Daily Weight Gain (DWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and relative condition factor (K) have been calculated for each farm. The best performance of the fish have been recorded on the Bahompa 2 farm (DWG= 1.54 ± 0.47 g/day, SGR = 2.04 ± 0.36%/day and K = 1 ± 0.01. Yopohoué farm follows, with DWG = 1.18 ± 0.31 g/day, SGR = 1.81 ± 0.3%/day, and K = 1 ± 0.01. Bahompa 3 farm were third with DWG= 0.89 ± 0.72 g/day, SGR = 1.15 ± 0.46%/day and K = 0.99 ± 0.04. Bahompa 1 farm, were fourth with DWG = 0.68 ± 0.19 g/day, SGR = 2.02 ± 0.41%/day and K = 1 ± 0.1. Then Sanepa farm were the last with DWG = 1.11 ± 0.18 g/d SGR = 1.21 ± 0.11%/day and K = 1 ± 0.98. The allometric coefficients (b <3) reflect the slow growth of these fish. These low parameters indicate living stress of Oreochromis niloticus fishes during their breeding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Onion Thrips [Thrips tabaci Lind. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)] on Onion Using Eco-Friendly Cultural Practices and Varieties of Onion in Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

Gebretsadkan Zereabruk, Mulatu Wakgari, Gashawbeza Ayalew

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i230053

Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major insect pest constraining onion production in the Central Zone of Tigray. Therefore, field experiment was conducted at Axum Agricultural Research from November 2015 to April 2016 to manage onion thrips using multiple techniques. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement and replicated three times. Onion varieties Bombay Red and Nasik Red were used as main plot treatments and intercropping onion with one or two other vegetables including, cabbage, carrot and lettuce, as subplot treatments. Treating onion with the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate) 5% EC and untreated sole onion were included as standard and control checks. Results showed that intercropping onion with cabbage, onion with cabbage + carrot and onion with cabbage + lettuce significantly reduced T. tabaci population by 58.47, 63.81 and 50.51%, respectively at higher infestations. Similarly, intercropping onion with cabbage, onion with cabbage + carrot and onion with lettuce + carrot showed a better effect in reducing thrips damage severity by 23.37, 23.09 and 17.66%, respectively, at higher infestations. Predatory thrips were observed on onion intercrops except the Karate 5% EC treated check. The highest marketable onion yield (35.52 t/ha) was obtained from onion intercropped with carrot and lettuce, though not significantly different from the untreated check. The lowest (23.54 t/ha) was obtained from onion intercropped with cabbage + lettuce. However, onion intercropped with lettuce gave the highest gross income (307344 ETB/ha). The lowest gross income was recorded from the insecticide treated plot (194583 ETB/ha). The study clearly showed that intercropping onion with other vegetables reduced the number of onion thrips and their damage on onion in the central zone of Tigray and hence can form an integral component in the integrated management of thrips on onion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Municipal Solid Waste Compost, Farm Yard Manure, Inorganic Fertilizers and Their Combinations on Potato Yield in Wolmera District, Ethiopia

Shiferaw Tafesse, Seyoum Leta

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i230054

The study was conducted in Wolmera district of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The main research objective was to evaluate the effect of municipal solid waste compost on potato yield in comparison to inorganic fertilizers and farm yard manure and combined applications. The experimental design was a factorial in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments were: i) combination of diammonium phosphate (97.5 kg/ha), urea (82.5 kg/ha) and municipal solid waste compost (10,000 kg/ha), ii)  combination of  diammonium phosphate (97.5 kg/ha),  urea  (82.5 kg/ha)  and farm yard manure  (10,000 kg/ha), iii) diammonium phosphate  (195k g/ha) and urea  (165 kg/ha), iv) farm yard manure (20,000 kg/ha), v) municipal solid waste compost (20,000 kg/ha), and vi) control. The findings of the research indicated that the combination of municipal solid waste compost and inorganic fertilizers resulted in the highest total tuber yield and total marketable yield, 18.2±0.7 ton/ha and 17.8±0.7 ton/ha, respectively, with 149% relative marketable yield advantage over control. Sole application of municipal solid waste compost was also resulted in significant (P=.05) potato yield increment compared to the control. It resulted in an increase of marketable potato tuber yield advantage of 52% over the control with total marketable yield of 10.9±0.9 ton/ha. Hence, combined use of municipal solid waste compost and inorganic fertilizers may be a promising option for poor potato farmers around the City of Addis Ababa. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification and Management of Pests and Diseases of Garden Crops in Santa, Cameroon

Konje C. N., Abdulai A. N., Achiri Denis Tange, Nsobinenyui D., Tarla D. N., Margaret Awah Tita

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i230055

Aims: This work sought to identify the pests and diseases that hinder successful gardening and the pesticides used to manage these pests and their frequencies of application.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was carried out in the Santa Area of the North West Region of Cameroon. It was conducted from June 2013 to February 2014.

Methodology: The study was carried out on six farms in Santa, a Sub-division in Mezam Division of the North West Region of Cameroon. On each of these farms, an area of 20 x 20 m was mapped and the plants therein observed. Insect pests, diseases and the pesticides used for their mitigation were identified at each growth stage.

Results: The main diseases identified were clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) and late blight (Phythophthora infestans) while Aphids (Myzus persicae S.), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) fruit worms (Helicoverpa amigera), Cutworms, fruitfly (Dacus punctatifrons) and grasshoppers (Zonocerus variegatus) were the prominent insect pests. The most applied pesticides were Cypermethrine and Dimethoate against insects, and Mancozeb and Maneb against fungi.

Conclusion: From this study the most prominent pest of cabbage was the black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon), which affected the early growing stage. The main disease that affected tomato was blight, seen in both seasons but its severity was greater in the rainy season.  Insect pests were a major problem in the dry season causing high economic losses than in the wet season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Calcium, Potassium and Watering Regimes on Blossom End Rot in Two Varieties of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Mandera County, Kenya

Mulyungi P. Syengo, Wekha N. Wafula, Ntinyari Winnie, Nicholas K. Korir, Joseph Gweyi-Onyango

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i230056

Blossom end rot (BER) is one of the physiological disorders of economic importance in tomato farming since it significantly reduces yield and thus affects profit margins. Most tomato disorders are due to mineral deficiencies and unbalanced nutrition. Improving the supply of specific nutrients and uniform soil moisture can reduce their occurrences. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of watering regimes, Calcium (Ca) and Potassium (K) on blossom end rot occurrence in two tomato varieties in Maslah and Guul sites. The trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in split-split plot arrangement with watering regimes (daily, thrice and twice a week) as main plots, tomato varieties (Riograde and Rionex) as sub plots, and 3 levels of Ca and K (0 Kg/ha, 25 Kg/ha, 50 kg/ha) as the sub-sub plots and replicated three times. Calcium treatments had the lowest score of blossom end rot compared to control. In Guul, the highest BER score (2.83) was observed under the control treatment while the lowest score (1.06) was recorded on the 50 kg/ha, Ca rate. Similar results were observed in Maslah with the control having the highest score of BER (3.22) while Ca 50 kg/ha scored lowest (1.11). No statistical differences were observed in the K treatments in the two study sites, however it was notable that lower rates of K reduced the blossom end rot incidences. Water stress led to increase in severity of the BER in the two study sites. In Guul, the highest score was in minimal watering regime (twice a week) of 2.36 score and lowest was at optimal watering regime (daily) of 1.08 score whereas in Maslah the highest blossom end rot score was in minimal watering regime (twice a week) of 3.19 and the lowest score of 1.19 on medium watering regime (Thrice a week).Therefore, optimal application of Ca, K, at 50 kg/ha with adequate and uniform soil moisture can improve management of blossom end rot in tomatoes thus raising farmer’s returns.