Open Access Original Research Article

Allelopathic Activity of Some Medicinal Plants against Erwinia carotovora

Hamida M. E. Hamad, Ahlam K. Alaila

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i330057

Many medicinal plants, exhibit allelopathy to biological management of plant pathogens by reducing their regeneration. This process involving secondary metabolites produced by plant influence the growth and development of agricultural and biological system. This research was to determine the allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts of different medicinal species (Artemisia herba alba, Pistacia atlantica and Juniperus phoenicea) against plant pathogenic bacteria (Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora) in comparison to the antibiotic Streptomycin (positive control). Effect of water extracts evaluated for different concentrations of different extracts for each plant studied was examined under laboratory conditions in petri dishes. The results showed that all the extracts significantly inhibited growth of tested bacteria. The differences in their inhibition depend on to the type of plant and concentration of extract. However, Artemisia herba alba extracts had greater inhibitory potential. Based on the study results, aqueous extracts of three plant species (A. herba alba, P. atlantica and J. phoenicea) showed a negative allelopathic effects on plant pathogenic bacteria (Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora).

Open Access Original Research Article

Tree Species Composition and Diversity of Ipinu-Igede Sacred Forest in Oju Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria

E. T. Ikyaagba, J. I. Amonum, S. Okwoche

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i330059

The role of sacred forest/sacred groves in the conservation of biodiversity is well recognised and documented. Despite the importance of sacred forests in conservation, data of flora species composition and diversity in many sacred forests still remain scanty.  The study was conducted to provide baseline data on tree species composition and diversity of Ipinu-Igede sacred forest with a view to promote the role of sacred forest in flora conservation in the area. Systematic sampling technique was adopted for the study. A base line transect of 2 km long was established and five (5) other transects 2 km long were laid at regular interval of 500 km apart. On each transect, 4 sampling plots of 50 mx50 m were established at a regular interval of 500m apart. Within the         50 m x50 m plots, trees with diameter at breast height (DBH)≥10 cm were identified and enumerated. Species Important Value Index (IVI), species richness, species evenness and species diversity were estimated. A total number of 50 tree species in 19 families were recorded. Cola gigantea was the most important tree species with IVI of 14.56, this was followed by Harungana madagascariensis with 13.14. Caesalpinioideae was the dominant family with 6 species, 48.15% of the families were represented by only one species. The species richness was D=9.436, Species Evenness was E´=0.7668 and species diversity was H=3.646. Thirty percent (30%) of the tree species were in the DBH class of 1-40cm indicating good regeneration status of the sacred forest. Acknowledgement of the traditional practices by scientists and other actors in natural resources conservation will help in promoting forest conservation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception and Farmer Know-How on Conservation Techniques for Cereals and Pulses in the Far North of Cameroon

Mala Carine, Kekeunou Sévilor, Lendzemo Venasius, Nukenine Elias

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i330060

Introduction: The storage and preservation of agricultural products remain the only conditions ensuring the almost permanent availability of foodstuffs. However, infestations due to insects and microorganisms are very often noted.

Objective: This present work aimed at understanding farmers' constraints, perceptions, and know-how on the post-harvest conservation of cereals and pulses.

Place and Duration of Study: A survey was conducted from March 2017 to March 2018 among 320 producers in the Far North region (Cameroon).

Methodology: The questionnaire consisted of closed and open questions which mainly related to the principal stored grains, the main constraints, and the usual means of control of stocks. The interview was conducted in a local language (Fulfulde), Arabic and/or French during 25 minutes for each participant. Insect stock photos were also presented to the participants for confirmation of the information given.

Results: The results show that producers in our study area are aware of the post-harvest damage and adopt stock control techniques according to the nature of the products, the fate of the grain and the storage structure. The main food crops grown are sorghum (44.4%), cowpea (24.1%) and maize (15.60%). Six main types of storage structure; three methods of storing foodstuffs, five modes of packaging and, six usual methods of control were identified but store maintenance and warehouse monitoring (56.25%) was the most used. According to respondents, insects are the main causes of post-harvest losses. 11 species belonging to four orders were recorded.

Conclusion: The producers in our study area are aware of the post-harvest damage and adopt stock control techniques according to the nature of the products, the fate of the grain and the storage structure. But this control would be more efficient if all producers had access to training on storage techniques, isothermal bags or the use of resistant varietal genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Income Diversification and Sustainable Land Management Practices among Rural Cassava-based Farmers in Imo State

I. H. Eririogu, E. D. Mevayekuku, R. N. Echebiri, A. Atama, P. C. Amanze, U. M. Olumba

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i330061

Aims: To examine the income diversification activities and sustainable land management practices among rural cassava-based farmers in Imo State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Primary data collection.

Place and Duration of Study: Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Pre-requisite study, Post-Graduation in Agricultural Resource and Environmental Economics, between August 2017 and January 2018.

Methodology: Data were collected using well-structured questionnaire, administered to rural cassava-based farmers. Multi-stage and purposive sampling techniques were employed, and one hundred and twenty (120) farmers were randomly selected for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Sustainable Land Management Index, Probit model and Inverse Herfindahl–Hirschman Diversity Index. The sustainable land management index (SLMI) was constructed from twelve (12) different sustainable land management indicators based on the sustainable practices prevalent in the study area.

Results: Results showed that cassava-based production was dominated by female farmers (63.33%) with mean age of 46, married (70.00%) with mean household size of 6 persons. The Inverse Herfindahl-Hirschman Diversity (IHHD) results showed that 87.50% of rural cassava-based farmers diversified their income base into other income-generating activities namely, off-farm and/or non-farm activities. The mean naira value for on-farm income was N 130,646.2k, while that of off-farm and non-farm were N 20,554.17k and N 78,333.33k, respectively. Cassava-based farmers diversified mostly into non-farm activities together with their on-farm activities, with a mean annual income (in naira) of N244,333.60k. The probit analysis showed that off-farm and non-farm activities have positive and significant effects on sustainable land management practices. The off-farm and non-farm activities encouraged the rural cassava-based farmers to adapt sustainable land management practices. However, doubling farmer’s engagement to off-farm activities (off-farm2) had a negative effect on sustainable land management, indicating that doubling their engagement to off-farm activities empowers farmers to adapt unsustainable labour-saving practices such over use of agrochemicals (herbicides, inorganic fertilizers and insecticides), due to drudgery and exhaustion as they allocate more of their labour services to another farmer’s farm.

Conclusion: In order to improve the adoption and adaption of sustainable land management practices, and reduce the drudgery in cassava production as farmers diversify more into off-farm activities, sustainable labour-saving technologies and practices such as conservation tillage and simple tools that reduce labour requirement in cassava production, save time and energy, were recommended. More lands should be allocated to cassava farmers, as farm land diversity will facilitate the adoption and adaption of sustainable land management practices such as fallowing and crop rotation that increase productivity by replacing fallow periods with growing different crops that replenish soil nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Inoculation on Growth and Yield of Two Sweet Potato Varieties

Michael Ajanja Sakha, Joyce Jefwa, Joseph P. Gweyi-Onyango

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v18i330063

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represent a functionally important component of soil microbial community, being of particular significance for plant mineral nutrition in tropical agro ecosystems. The effects of AMF inoculation on growth and yield of two sweet potato varieties was studied during the short rains season of 2017/2018 in the Teaching and Research Farm of Agricultural Science and Technology Department, Kenyatta University. The experiment was laid down as 2x2 factorial design in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The experimental factors were two sweet potato varieties (Kemb-10 and Bungoma) and AMF inoculum (With and without inoculation). Data on growth parameters was collected on vine length and number of branches, while data on yield was collected on marketable storage roots and shoot biomass. Data was analyzed using Genstat 15th edition and the results showed that there was significantly difference at P≤0.05 among the treatments. AMF inoculation increased growth and yield of sweet potatoes by vine length 29.74%, Number of branches 22.36%, marketable storage roots 18.32%, and shoot biomass 28.68% in week 20. Also, variety interacting with AMF inoculation enhanced growth and yield parameters. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that the application of commercial AMF inoculum solely or when interacting with varieties enhanced growth and yield of sweet potatoes, though there was no significant difference between the two varieties.