Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints to Non-timber Forest Products Supply in Ago-Owu Forest Reserve of Osun State, Nigeria

A. F. Aderounmu, A. A. Adejumo

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v19i330082

Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) are products or services other than timber that is produced in a forest and of course, are indispensable parts of the livelihood strategy of the forest’s adjoining communities. Their economic potentials necessitated the need for research to be carried out on its production and constraints facing its supply in the study area. Therefore, constraints to NTFPs’ supply in Ago-Owu forest reserve and its environment were investigated. Three communities (Mokore, Ajegunle and Alabameta) were randomly selected out of the six (Mokore, Ajegunle, Alabameta, Elewe, Alaguntan and Okodowo) identified communities in the study area. Their populations were sought for and samples were drawn in proportionate to their sizes: Mokore (50), Ajegunle (40) and Alabameta (20). This gave a total number of 110 respondents from which 105 questionnaires were derived for the investigations. A set of questionnaire was used to obtain data on source of NTFPs, commonly sourced NTFPs and constraints facing its supply in the study area. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logit regression at α0.05. Majority of the respondents were male (69.1%) and 64.8% of them were within the age of 30-50 years. Also, most of the respondents were married (78.1%) and less than half of them (41%) had no formal education, but were predominantly farmers (72.4%). The major source of NTFPs in the study area was forest reserve (70.5%), while a total of seventeen (17) different NTFPs commonly sourced were documented. Constraints facing the supply of NTFPs included Climate change, Lack of finance for smooth running of the activities involved in the products’ supply and price fluctuation with odds-ratio of 9.87, 5.66 and 1.92 respectively. The study established the significance of the Ago-Owu forest reserve to the livelihood of the forest dwellers. However, there is need for the establishment of new plantations to fostering production of the products as well as serving as adaptation strategies against climate change. There is also an urgent need for the State Forestry Service/government to address their areas of concern pointed out in this study for bio-prospecting, economic well-being of forest dwellers and great advantage of boost in revenue propensity of Osun State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Camel Feed Characterization of Ethiopian Somali Region Rangelands through Traditional Knowledge

Aklilu Bajigo Madalcho, Bosenu Abera Tadesse, Kefyalew Gebeyew, Gebremedhin Gebresilassie

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v19i330083

The study was conducted in five administrative zones of the Ethiopian Somali Regional State, with the objectives of characterizing the major camel browse and grazed plant species and their seasonal availability in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas. A semi-structured questionnaire, group discussions, field observations, and key informant interviews were used as the primary data collection tools, while different secondary data sources were also used. A total of 150 household heads were selected purposively for formal interview. The results showed that most (90.7%) of the respondents were male and 85.3% of the sampled households were illiterate. It was revealed that browsing trees and shrubs were the major camel feed resources in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas. Although the quality and quantity of camel feed vary in dry (66%) and wet (88%) seasons; trees and shrubs were the major feed resources at all seasons, while the herbaceous species cover only 34% in both pastoral and agro-pastoral areas. The identified camel feed species in the study districts comprise 38 tree species, 20 herbaceous species, 12 shrub, 7 bush, and 17 grass species. The study revealed that there is a need to raise awareness among the pastoralist and agro-pastoral communities on the importance of browse plant species management and sustainable utilization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Phosphorus forms on Growth and Yield of Cowpea, Kales and Amaranth Vegetable Species

Fidelis W. Githua, Winnie Ntinyari, Nicholas K. Korir, Joseph P. Gweyi-Onyango

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v19i330084

Maximum production potential of leafy vegetable is limited by phosphorous (P) deficiency in the soils. This is due to the high cost of the phosphate fertilizer and the fixed form of the available phosphorous in the soil. There is therefore, need for farmers to use alternative and cheaper sources of P that are economic friendly to supply the required mineral nutrition to their crops. Rock phosphate is widely available but has a challenge in solubilization to make P available to the crops. In the current study, the aim was to evaluate the effect phosphate forms and acidulate rock phosphate on growth and yield of selected leafy vegetables. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design in split-plot arrangement, with three leafy vegetables (cowpeas, kales and amaranth) being the main plots, and various sources of P (Triple super phosphate (TSP)  Mijingu Phosphate Rock(MPR), Mijingu phosphate Rock + sulphur (MPR)PR+S and control) constituting the subplots with three replicates. The collected data included: root dry weight, leaf area, shoot fresh weight and leaf area and was subjected to SAS for ANOVA and where there were significant differences between means were further separated using the Fischer’s LSD at 5% level of significance. The results revealed that there were significant increase in the growth parameters of the vegetables as an effects of phosphorus application compared with the control. TSP elicited the best results in all the tested parameters in 5 WAP, 6 WAP and 7 WAP respectively in both seasons  The highest value of root dry weight (11.2 g), leaf area (1905.0 cm2), number of branches (40.67) shoot fresh weight (236.8 g) as influenced by TSP application in the vegetable species. The MRP + sulphur  also followed in superiority  of increasing the growth parameters which is an indication that sulphur can be used in solubilizing rock phosphate and making it a suit alternative for farmers. Thus, farmers are advised to directly apply rock phosphate and sulphur to soil as a possible alternative to the more expensive soluble phosphate fertilizers in tropical cropping system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Candidate Herbicides for Post- Emergence Weed Control in Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

O. A. Aluko

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v19i330085

Post emergence application of herbicides reduced weed growth, enhanced kenaf agronomic traits and fibre yield. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of some herbicide formulations for post emergence weed control in kenaf at Ibadan (0.7.38N; 003.84E- Derived savanna agro-ecology) station of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ibadan in 2016 and 2017 rainy seasons.  Herbicides applied were Quazilofop-P-ethyl (100, 150, 200 ml/ha), Oxyfluorfen (0.96, 1.20 and 1.44 kg ai/ha) and Fluazifop-p-butyl 150, 225 and 300 g ai/ha) at three rates each, while weed-free and weedy were the control treatments. Weed flora composition before land preparation was dominated by annual weeds; broadleaves (70%), grass (20%) and spiderwort (10%). At 10 weeks after sowing (WAS), weed flora composition comprised of 64% broadleaf, 14% grass, 8% spiderwort and 14% sedge. Weed flora dynamics after treatments application might have been influenced by herbicide formulations applied. Oldenlandia corymbusa, Cyperus escunlentus, Desmodium scorpurus and Cyperus rotundus were identified as prevalent weeds across the treatments applied while Mimosa pudica, was a minor weed.  Herbicides improved kenaf agronomic traits (plant height, stem-butt girth and number of leaves/plant) due to minimal weed competition; reduced weed flora composition and weed weight relative to weed infested kenaf plants in weedy control. Oxyfluorfen (0.96, 1.20 and 1.44 kg ai/ha); fluazilof-p-butyl (225 and 300 g ai/ha); Quazilofop-P-ethyl (100 and 200 ml/ha) reduced weed dry weight by 60-70%. Weed-free plots had the highest weed control efficiency (WCE %). Evidently, acceptable WCE of ≥ 80% and comparable gross fibre yield with the maximum in weed-free recorded in Oxyfluorfen (1.20 and 1.44 kg ai/ha) and Fluazilofop-p-butyl (300 g ai/ha) showed their efficacies. However, low WCE 50 -65% in Quazilofop-p-ethyl (100, 150, 200 ml/ha) might reflected a review of the doses applied for better efficacy.  Kenaf gross fibre yield was reduced by 65% in the weedy check plot, due to superior weed infestation and utmost weed dry weight accumulation. Notwithstanding, the benefit-cost ratio and environmental impact assessment of the study must be carried out for economically viable kenaf production and environmental friendliness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Seed Weights and Sowing Media on Germination and Early Growth of Afzelia africana Smith ex Pers

A. F. Aderounmu, I. O. Asinwa, A. O. Adetunji

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v19i330086

Seed weight is essential in assessing seed quality traits, while sowing medium has significant role in seed germination. This study therefore assessed effect of seed weights and sowing media on germination of Afzelia africana seeds to enhancing sustainable production of the species.

Seeds of different sizes were collected, weighed and grouped into small (120), medium (120) and large (120) seeds. Each seed group was sown in three sowing media (washed river sand, decomposed sawdust, and forest top soil) replicated 4 times and arranged in Completely Randomized Design. The growth assessment comprised of 3 treatments which included seedlings from small, medium and large seeds and replicated 4 times. Plant height, leaf production and stem diameter were assessed fortnightly for twelve weeks. Biomass assessment was carried out twice (second week and twelfth week). Mean Daily Germination, Germination Percentage, Germination Energy, Peak Value, Germination value, Net Assimilation Rate and Relative Growth Rate were estimated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Mean Daily Germination showed that large seeds sown in river sand large seed size sown in saw dust (T4 and T7) had highest value of 3.47 and 3.29 respectively with GV of 12.83.

There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the effects of different sowing media and seed weights on the germination of A. africana. Saw dust gave the highest mean value with 52.777±0.28 while mean value of large sized seeds was highest (57.539±0.6). There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the effects of different seed weight on the height, collar diameter and leaf production.

Germination percentage of A. africana improved significantly with the sowing media and seed weight especially sawdust, river sand, and large seed size. It therefore suggested that A. africana seedling should be raised at nursery stage with river sand and Large seed size in order to increase the growth of plant and have more vigorous seedlings for plantation establishment.