Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Exclosure on Species Diversity, Population Structure and Regeneration Status of Woody Plants in Lowland Northern Tigray, Ethiopia

Nuru Mohammed

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v20i230099

Aim: This study was conducted to assessing woody plant composition, population structure and regeneration status in lowland exclosure (EX) of Northern Ethiopia.

Study Design: Investigation of parameters was undertaken from 71 plots with size of 20 m x 10 m laid systematically along transect lines for vegetation data. These 200 m2 plots were used for assessment of trees with DBH >5 cm. Small quadrats of 4 m*4 m (16 m2) nested within the bigger plots was laid at the four corners and center of each plots. These were used for measuring seedling and sapling individuals. To analyze species diversity, population structure and regeneration status of woody plants were by computing abundance, density, basal area, Importance value index (IVI) and using Shannon-Weiner diversity and evenness indices.

Results: According to vegetation survey result, a total of 23, 17 and 26 woody species were recorded, at Kara, Erba and Shektekli exclosures (EXs), respectively. While 8, 7 and 5 species of woody plant were in open grazing land (OGL). The total mean densities of all woody plants were found to be 1530, 1480 and 2999 individual’s ha-1 at Kara, Erba and Shektekli in EXs.

Conclusion: The study suggested that the regional government have to considering EXs as useful for restoration or rehabitation strategy in the region, the vegetation in all the EXs in the study sites have a higher species composition, diversity, density, increment of basal area and regeneration woody plants than OGL, as a result of management differences in EXs. However, there are also variation on species composition, diversity, density increment of basal area and regeneration woody plants among exclosures having similar age and altitude for instance the species recorded in Erba site is lower than with other of EXs, This could be due to among local site characteristic variation and high grazing happen before Ex establishment exists. Therefore, we need to apply soil and water conservation, enrichment planting with indigenous tree species and strengthen local management institution in effectively protect the exclosure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Solid Waste Dumpsite on Groundwater Quality in the Neighbouring Communities

O. V. Ajibade, P. O. Ogungbile, M. K. C. Sridhar, A. O. Coker

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v20i230101

Leachate seepages into groundwater aquifer from solid waste dumpsites is likely to release toxic pollutants in groundwater which are hazardous to human health and local ecosystem. A study was conducted on the Physico-chemical parameters of dumpsite leachate and surrounding groundwater from Awotan Solid Waste Dumpsite, in Ibadan, Oyo State. The study was aimed at assessing the impact of the leachate from the dumpsite. The physicochemical analyses of the water samples were carried by standard analytical methods. The results obtained were compared with the WHO (World Health Organization) permissible limit of those parameters in drinking water. The Physico-chemical values obtained for the dumpsite leachate were generally higher than those of groundwater samples, suggesting that a source of contamination could be from the dumpsite leachate. The pH of groundwater samples ranged between 5.03 to 6.94, indicating that the groundwater was acidic. Results of Physico-chemical parameters of dumpsite leachate for Cl-, NO3, TH, Alk, BOD, COD exceeded the WHO limits for drinking water. The BOD and COD of dumpsite leachate and groundwater samples exceeded the WHO limits and hence not safe for drinking. The concentration of Cl- and TH in the groundwater closer to the dumpsite were higher than WHO permissible limits for drinking water. Also, concentrations of the analyzed parameters decreased with increasing distance from the dumpsite, thus implicating leachate seepage from the dumpsite into the groundwater. It is therefore recommended that dumpsites be located away from the human settlements to avoid drinking water contamination and local ecosystem & biodiversity degradation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Topography, Soil Texture and Climatic Factors on the Growth Rate of Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.) in Albaha Region, South-Western Saudi Arabia

Saad Howladar

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v20i230103

A field study was conducted to study the effects of topography, soil texture and climatic factors on the growth rate of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) in Albaha region, south-western Saudi Arabia. Results indicated that there was no variation observed in soil texture among the studied locations. The maximum amount of rain fall and relative humidity recorded in the study areas was– 28.7 mm and 59%, respectively. Temperature was ranged from 16 – 29.6°C while surface wind speed reached a maximum value of 47 Kts. At the studied locations which had steeper topography and characterized by scattered small, huge and steep Rocky Mountains the elevation was in the range of 1245 – 2052 m while the slope was ranged from 00 to 75. Most of the healthy very green vigorous trees were found in the bed of the Wadi while the stunted ones were scattered on the mountain edges. This indicated that the altitude and slope have remarkable effects on the growth rate of the olive trees.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical and Socio-economics of Dracaena camerooniana Baker in Uíge Province, Northern Angola

Mawunu Monizi, Dionisio Canga André, Lukoki Luyeye, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Luyindula Ndiku

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v20i230104

Aims: The aim of this research was to contribute to the survey of ethnobotanical knowledge on the use of Dracaena camerooniana by the local communities’ bordering the tropical forests of Uíge province.

Study Design: The data collections were carried out using the semi-structured interview method. The approch methods are an ethnobotanical and socio-economics surveys populations of the study area.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was undertaken in the province of Uíge, Republic of Angola, from April 2016 to March 2018, period that covers the dry and rainy season.

Methodology: The surveys consisted in drafting a questionnaire beforehand to apprehend the knowledge and multiples uses of D. camerooniana among the surrounding population. The interview were conducted in Kikongo language and in Portuguese according to the mastered by the people surveyed.

Results: The findings show that tropical forest zones of Congolese guinea/Zambian located in Uíge Province, is full of high value non-wood forest products (NWFPs) including D. camerooniana Baker (locally called Nzala bakala or Nsala bakala). This plant species is a wild green vegetable essence appreciated by the local population and is an additional source of financial income for subsistence farmers and Hunter-gatherers. Knowledge of D. camerooniana consumption was transmitted from generation to generation by oral tradition. The study also shows that D. camerooniana is well known and used by the local communities of Uíge. Finally, the consumption and commercialization of NWFPs, such as the leaves of D. camerooniana contribute in strengthening nutrition, health, food diversity, income and livelihoods.

Conclusion: Despite its importance in food security and socioeconomic terms in both rural and urban areas, few scientific researchers have been fully interested in its valorization. In addition, the phytochemical studies should be carried out to discover the nutritional, toxic, and medicinal properties of this plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Efficacy of Zinc Solubilizing Bacteria on Available Zinc Content, Growth and Yield Attributes of Paddy (Oryza sativa)

S. G. Manasa, Mahadevaswamy ., Y. Ramesh, M. Naik Nagaraj, R. C. Gundappagol

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v20i230105

The experiment was aimed at assessing the effect of zinc solubilizing isolates on the available zinc content, growth and yield attributes of paddy. The study was conducted using a randomized block design at the experimental plots of Agricultural Research Station, Dhadesugur. The isolates namely MZSB 6 and MZSB 8 were tested for in vitro solubilization of the zinc and later brought under field condition. 25-day-old paddy seedlings were dipped in lignite based biofertilizer slurry and transplanted according to treatments. Data on growth and yield parameters of paddy were taken at regular intervals of 30 DAT, 60 DAT and 90 DAT and available plant zinc content were estimated using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Growth and yield parameters of paddy showed a significant increase in the treatment that received combination of MZSB 6, MZSB 8 and 75% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) as compared to control and other treatments. Results also showed the highest available zinc of 46.18 mg kg-1 of plant estimated using the ICP-MS. Thus, the results revealed that the combination of both isolates with 75% RDF was found to be efficient in enhancing growth and yield of paddy.