Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic Mulching on Weed Suppression, Yield and Yield Components of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

Goitom Teame

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v20i430115

Sesame is the second in oil crop produced in Ethiopia next to Niger seed and it is also second foreign currency generator in the country. Weeds are the most significant problem in sesame producing areas. This research was conducted with the aim of reducing weed infestation and boost yield. The experiment was conducted in 2016 cropping season at Humera Agricultural Research Center in RCBD design. Growth performance, yield and yield components of sesame and weed data were collected. Less abundant and dense Rahynochosia malacophylla weeds (33) and (132/m2) were recorded at Sudan grass, where the most abundant and dense Rahynochosia malacophylla weeds (60.5) and (242/m2) were recorded from no-mulch plot. The highest sesame yield (695 kg ha-1) was recorded from Sudan grass treatment, while the lowest yield (225 kg ha-1) was recorded from no mulch. Farmers need to apply grass mulch to suppress weed growth and boost sesame yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Spacing and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Growth and Biomass Yield of Mezrut Grass (Echinochloa spp.) under Rain Fed Condition in Western Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Gebreslasie Gebrekidan, Gebrekiros Maru, Shishay Markos

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v20i430116

Mezrut grass (Echinochloa spp.), which was one of the locally available grass, was released by Humera Agricultural Research Center (HuARC) by intended to contribute paramount role in addressing feed shortage of the area, but yet it is not documented with its appropriate agronomic practices such as nitrogen fertilizer and spacing. This study was conducted at Humera, Kebabo, Banat, Zerbabit and Ruwasa, western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia in 2018 under rain fed condition to determine effect of spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on growth and biomass yield of Mezrut grass (Echinochloa spp.). The experiment was arranged in a split plot design with six nitrogen fertilizer levels (0, 11.5, 23.0, 34.5, 46.0 and 57.5 kgNha-1) applied in the form of urea and four spacing (40, 60, 80 and 100 cm), with Echinochloa spp. as a test crop. Data were recorded on dry matter yield (DMY), 50% flowering date, plant height and number of tillers at harvest. Statistical significant difference (p<0.05) due to nitrogen fertilizer was observed on DMY, 50% flowering date and plant height at harvest. Similarly, the study also revealed that spacing had significant (p<0.001) effect on DMY and plant height at harvest. Relatively higher DMY and plant height at harvest were obtained from 23.0, 34.5, 46.0 and 57.5 kg Nha-1 as compared with the other treatments set up. Moreover, higher and lower values of DMY and plant height at harvest were obtained from 40 and 80cm spacing, respectively. The study suggested that application of 23.0 kgNha-1 and 40 cm spacing improved biomass yield and plant height at harvest of Mezrut grass (Echinochloa spp.) under rain fed condition and recommended to be implemented. Therefore, application of 23.0 kgNha-1 and 40cm spacing to boost biomass yield and plant height of Echinochloa spp. should be demonstrated and popularized in the study area and other similar agro ecologies of the country. 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Combining Farm Yard Manure, Starter Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Zinc on Growth and Yield of Green Grams

Esther Mwende Muindi, Consalata Mueni Muindi, James Ndiso

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v20i430117

Green gram (Vigna radiate l.) is an important legume grown within Kenyan Coast. Despite the crops importance as a locally available nutrient supplement, its production is constrained by declining soil fertility caused by poor agronomic practices. A field experiment was established during the March-June, 2019 long rains in multi locational sites at Matuga and Mivumoni in Kwale County. The experiment was aimed at investigating the effect of integrating farm yard manure, zinc and starter nitrogen and phosphorus on soil fertility, growth and yield of green grams. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Treatments included: Zinc, NP, Manure, Manure+ zinc, NP+ zinc and control. Green gram variety tested was KS20. Data collected included: Initial soil chemical properties, plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, grains per pod, weight of 100 grains, biomass and grain yield. Results showed that Zinc+ manure significantly promoted the highest plant height, number of leaves, grain yield. Plots treated with zinc+ manure recorded 32% higher plant height and 46% higher grain yield compared to NP applied plots. In conclusion, integration of manure and zinc was most effective in promoting green grams growth and yield. Since, this research was carried out on station in ferralic, chromic Luvisols; there is need for long term trials in farmers’ fields with diverse soil properties and environmental conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Chemical Seed Treatments on Managing Chocolate Spot [Botrytis fabae (S.)] of Faba Bean at Welkayt and Tsegedie, Western Tigray, Ethiopia

Gebremedhn Gebregergs

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v20i430118

Faba bean (Vicia faba (L).) is one of the important legume crops of the world,  mainly it is cash crop and important source of nitrogen in the human diet which corrects the important amino acid deficiencies in cereals. It is considered too low in productivity and chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae S.), is one of the economically important fungal disease. Seed treatment using chemical inducers is one of the management options used to control the seed and soil borne diseases. Therefore, research was conducted to determine the efficacy of seed treatment chemicals on controlling chocolate spot and enhance productivity of faba bean. Six (6) seed treatment chemicals, one Cow urine and untreated seed as control were used to manage chocolate spot at Welkayt and Tsegedie under field condition during the 2015 and 2016 main growing seasons in randomized complete block design with three replications. A variety called “Welqi” was used. Combined analysis of variance in locations showed statistically significant at (P≤0.05) among the treatments of yield and disease reaction data. Minimum disease severity was recorded in Salicylic acid (31.31%) and maximum severity in the control (62.53%). Highest grain yield was obtained from the Salicylic acid treated seed (3198 kg ha-1) and the lowest grain yield was from Ascorbic acid (2231 kg ha-1) non-significant with the control (2488 kg ha-1). Salicylic acid and Apronstar were effective in managing chocolate spot providing more than 18.73% yield advantage in faba bean growing areas so that faba bean productivity could be enhanced though the application of these seed treatment chemicals. Therefore, our faba bean producing farmers has to use the salicylic acid in 10 mM concentration to manage chocolate spot below the threshold level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Pleurotus ostreatus Spent Extracts on Enhancement of Faba Bean Production

Azza Ghazi, Ibrahim El-Akhdar

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v20i430119

Microbial extracts are eco-friendly and reduce threats effects of chemical fertilizers in the agricultural field. Rice straw used for of Pleurotus ostreatus (an edible fungus) production. The residual spent mushroom (SM) was extracted in alkaline medium (with 0.5 M Potassium hydroxide) and the obtained extract was assayed for carbohydrates, reducing sugar, organic acids and NPK-content. In vitro, the ability of these extracts to support the growth of beneficial microorganisms (Azospirillium sp, Azotobacer, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae and Trichoderma sp.) were evaluated. Spent mushroom extracts (SME) used for improving faba bean production in this proposal. Faba bean cultivars Sakha 4 and Misr 3 were conducted during two winter seasons; pots (2017-2018) and field experiment (2018-2019) at Agricultural Research Center, Sakha Agriculture Research Station, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt. The SME was applied with three methods (Spry, soil amendments and mixed of spry + soil amendment). The results revealed that the 10% w/v SME is rich with polysaccharide, reducing sugar, organic acids (Humic acid, Oxalic acid, Citric acid, Lactic acid, Ascorbic acid, Maleic acid, Formic acid, Salsylic acid) in addition NPK and microelements. It was also able to support the logarithmic growth of the previous beneficial microorganisms with (4.7, 3.8, 5.4 and 3.85 cfu ml-1), respectively while Azotobacter was not able to grow in this media. The experiments results shown that SME enhanced the vegetative growth (plant length, number of branches, number and dry weight of nodules, grain yield, and weight of 100 grain) and chemical composition (NPK) of treated plants compared with untreated ones.

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Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Merchantability of Maize (Zea mays L.) as Epis, Spathes and Grains Stocked in the Production Areas of Côte d'Ivoire

Sira Bamba, Henri Marius Godi Biego, Adama Coulibaly, Yves B. Nyamien, Ysidore Konan, Daouda Sidibe

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2019/v20i430120

Aims: This study aims to determine merchantability of maize produced and stocked as grains, epis and spathes of maize in five departments of Côte d’Ivoire.

Study Design: A total of 375 samples were collected at rate of 75 samples by department (Botro, Korhogo, Katiola, Agniblékro and Bondoukou). Then, the received samples were sent to the laboratory in order to analyse their merchantability.

Place and Duration of Study: The collection of samples was carried out on grains, epis and spathes maize from February 2013 to January 2014. Then, the analyzes were carried out at the Biochemistry and Food Sciences Laboratory of the Félix Houphouët-boigny University.

Methodology: The humidity was determined by drying until constant weight when the losses and damages of grains have been quantified by counting and weighing.

Results: The results show that for maize grains, humidity levels vary from 8.59±0.11% to 14.18±0.52%. Concerning epis of maize, humidity levels are between 9.85±0.23% to 13.02±0.32%. For maize spathes, humidity levels fluctuate between 11.16±0.29% to 14.17±0.32%. The damages varies from 5.01±2.64% to 19.35±2.00% for maize grains, 9.05±5.27% to 21.29±7.17% for epis and 17.95±1.13% for spathes. As regards weigh losses, proportions of grains, epis and spathes are between 1.53±1.17% and 5.10±0.97%, 2.43±1.70% and 6.54±1.79% and 2.76±1.18% and 5.11±2.65%, respectively.

Conclusion: A significant variability from one department to another can be noticed at level of maize quality regardless the type of maize. The merchantability of maize seems to be tied to post-harvest treatments (drying), type of storage (epis, grains and spathes) and structure of storage.