Open Access Original Research Article

Some Correlation Coefficients of Maize under Soil-application of Pendimethalin in Mubi and Gombe Ecologies of Nigeria

I. J. Dantata, E. A. Shittu, H. J. Philip, M. Sani

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International,
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i130121

Field experiment was carried out during the wet season of 2012 at the Teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, Mubi (Lat.10° 15II N and Long.13° 16II E, altitude of 696 m above sea level) and a Community based Demonstration Farm in Gombe (Lat.11° 30N and Long.10° 20E, altitude of 340 m above sea level). Both locations were situated in the Northern Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. The study was carried out to determine the level of correlation between weed parameters, growth and yield attributes of maize as affected by pendimethalin application. Treatments which consisted of six different rates of pendimethalin (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0kg a.i.ha-1) + two control checks (weed free and weedy check) were placed in the main plots as main treatment while maize cultivar SAMMAZ 17 was placed in the sub-plots as sub-treatments in a split plot design and replicated three times. Pendimethalin was pre-emergence- applied a day after sowing (DAS). Weed free check plots (control) were kept weed free by regular weeding. Similarly, all agronomic practices were adequately carried out except those under study. Data collected on weed cover score (WCS), weed fresh weight (WFW), weed dry weight (WDW), days to 50% emergence (D50E), crop injury score (CIS), crop vigour score (CVS), establishment count (EC), plant height (PH), leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR), days to 50% tasseling (D50T), 1000 grain weights (1GWTs) and grain yield (GY) were analyzed using Minitab Version 11 Statistical Software. Results revealed that WCS was significantly higher and strongly correlated with WFW, WDW but was strong and negatively associated with GY of maize in both Mubi and Gombe. D50E, D50T and LAI were positive but contributed weakly to the GY of maize in Mubi. Similarly, D50E, D50T, PH and LAI had same pattern of behavior as the former in Gombe. EC was negative and also contributed weakly to the grain yield of maize in both locations. PH, CVS, CGR, 1GWTs were positive and strongly associated with GY of maize in Mubi. The same trend was also observed for all parameters except PH which though positive it was weakly associated to the final GY of maize in Gombe. Pendimethalin did not posed any significant effect on the post- physico-chemical properties of the soils at the two experimental sites, except in soil-pH, organic carbon, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, magnesium, potassium and sodium in Mubi and available phosphorus, total nitrogen, Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium in Gombe. These soil properties were significantly influenced by rates of soil applied Pendimethalin compared to the control checks.

Open Access Original Research Article

To What Extent do Mango Agrosystems (Mangifera indica, Anacardiaceae) Contribute to the Restoration of Hypogenous Termites (Insecta: Isoptera) in Korhogo Region (Northern Côte d'Ivoire)?

Tenon Coulibaly, Yalamoussa Tuo, Laurince Michel Yapo, Akpa Alexander Moïse Akpesse, Ahoua Yapi, Kouassi Philippe Kouassi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 21-29
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i130124

The conversion of natural ecosystems to agriculture is recognized as the current major cause of biodiversity loss. Given large expanses of land that is under agriculture worldwide, this study, carried out in 2013, aimed to examine the contribution of mango orchards to the restoration of hypogenous termite in northern Côte d'Ivoire. Using the TSBF (Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility) monolith method of soil macrofauna estimation, termites were collected in seven age classes of mango tree orchards (class 1: <5 years; class 2: 5–9 years; class 3: 10–14 years; class 4: 15–19 years; class 5: 20–24 years; class 6: 25–29 years; class 7: 30 years and over) and compared with termites collected from the savannah. A total of 16 species of termite were collected in all the study plots. The species richness, low in young orchards of classes 1 and 2 (05 species), increases to reach its maximum in old orchards of more than 30 years (13 species). These old orchards would be even richer and more diversified in termite species than savannah (10 species). Termites were less abundant in young orchard of class 1 (151.33±87.35 Individuals/m2) and more abundant in the old orchards of class 7 (344.88±119.90 ind./ m2). In the young orchards of class 1, termites were more prevalent in the 20-30 cm depth (7.92%) and in the old orchards of class 7, termites were found more at the surface between 0-10 cm depth (67.26%). Soil-feeders were absent in the young orchards but were abundant in the old orchard of class 7 (519 individuals). This study showed that in this highly disturbed region, mango orchards are re-colonized by termite communities. These results encourage the establishment of mango orchards to allow natural regeneration after agricultural disturbances.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluate the Equivalency of Some Insecticides Pesticides Containing Diazinon and Diazinox, with Emphasis to Their Content of Impurities and Degradation

Nahed M. M. Selim, Hala M. Ibrahim

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 30-43
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i130125

The aim of this study has investigated the degradation of diazinox 5% and five different concentration of diazinon (diazinon 95%, diazinon 15%, diazole 50%, diazit 60% and octadat 60%) before and after storage at 54 +2°C for 0, 7, 14 days. Besides, the effects of storage on the formation of its toxic impurities (sulfotep, monothiono-tepp, and water) were studied. The data showed that diazinox 5%, was less stable than different concentrations of diazinon, whereas the percentage loss 38.5% while, diazinon 95% was more stable for storage which has percentage loss is 1.14% after 14 days of storage at 54+2oC. For results, diazinon 15%, diazole 50%, diazit 60% and octadat 60% show it’s relatively moderate in its stability compared with other tests which have a percentage loss ranged from 1.33 to 27.2% after 14 days of storage at the same conditions.

Moreover, the monothiono-tepp impurity (O, S- TEPP) in diazinon 95%, diazinox 5% and diazit 60% was more than the maximum permissible concentration of impurity recommended by FAO specifications before and after storage. But diazinon 15%, diazole 50% and octadat 60% was This level are allowed to limit according to FAO before and after storage. While sulfotep impurity in diazinon 95% was more than the maximum permissible concentration of impurity recommended by FAO specifications before and after storage. On the other hand, diazinon 15%, diazinox 5%, diazole 50%, diazit 60% and octadat 60% were This levels are allowed to limit according to FAO before and after storage. 

Finally, GC – MS analysis gives the same separation before storage whereas it gives a new separation peak after storage and results showed that of the breakdown of the 2-Isopropyl-6-methyl-pyrimidin-4-ol main product in diazinon and diazinox. Also, IR analysis showed that the % match of all tested was more than 90 before and after storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Biomass Yield of Brachiaria ruziziensis (Poaceae) under the Direct and Residual Effects of Fertilization with Hen Droppings at Flowering in West Cameroon

Gilles Jiope Azangue, Fernand Tendonkeng, David Fokom Wauffo, Etienne Tedonkeng Pamo

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 44-52
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i130126

Aim: A study was conducted at the Research and Experimental Farm (REF) of the University of Dschang with the aim of evaluating the direct and residual effects of fertilization with hen droppings on the growth and biomass yield of Brachiaria ruziziensis at flowering.

Methodology: A factorial design with five levels of fertilization in terms of nitrogen in hen droppings (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kg N/ha) on 6 m2 (3 m x 2 m) plots in four replicates, i.e. a total of 20 experimental plots was used. Fertilization with hen droppings was done one month after the placement of the stump chips, during the first year of cultivation (direct effects). In the second year of cultivation (residual effects), no fertilization was done. Measurements of plant heights and diameters were made on 40 plants per level of fertilization. Leaf, stem and whole-plant biomass assessments were made on all plots in relation to their fertilization levels.

Results: This study shows that the direct effect of fertilization in the form of hen droppings resulted in heights and diameters significantly greater than those obtained under the residual effect of fertilization. Biomasses of whole plants and their different compartments obtained under the residual effect of fertilization were significantly higher than those obtained under the direct effect of fertilization. Under the direct and residual effect of fertilization, the heights, diameters and biomasses of the fertilized plots were greater than those of the control plots. The level of fertilization corresponding to the dose of 100 kg N/ha gave the best results.

Conclusion: Fertilization with hen droppings at a dose of 100 kg N/ha would be recommended for the cultivation of B. ruziziensis over a two-year period, in order to limit the use of mineral fertilizers.

Open Access Review Article

A Comprehensive Review on Greenhouse Drying Technology

Abhinav Dubey, Atish Sagar, Pankaj Malkani, Mukesh Kumar Choudhary, Sawant Sanket Ramnath

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 10-20
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i130123

Drying is one of the most important unit operations for food preservation and storage. It is a energy intensive process and with the increase in the price and demand of electricity, renewable energy (solar) is proving its worth. Greenhouse dryers are low cost, easily constructible and can be utilised for invariably majority of agricultural commodities. The above attributes accounts for its high popularity in the Indian sub continents and Africa. An attempt has been made to generate a comprehensive review on the application, advances in construction, modelling, simulation and economics of the solar greenhouse dryers.