Open Access Short communication

Morphological Diversity of Muscovy Duck in Humid Zone of Nigeria

Muslim K. Ewuola, M. O. Akinyemi, W. A. Hassan, Bello Semiu Folaniyi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 39-44
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i230131

The study is aimed to assess live weight and some morphometric traits to serve as the basis for documentation and utilization in improvement programme of the locally-adapted ducks. This study observed five phenotypic characteristics and assessed live weight, and seven morphometric traits in 200 adult domestic ducks (105 drakes and 95 ducks) in the humid zone of Nigeria between February and August 2012. The observed characteristics were plumage colour, shank colour, eye colour, incidence and colour of caruncle. The seven morphometric traits included; body length, breast circumference, bill length, neck length, wing length, shank length, and foot length. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression coefficients. Plumage colour was predominantly pied (black/white) with a relative prevalence of 69.0%. Shank colour was mainly yellow with a relative proportion of 62.5%. About 62% of the study ducks were yellow-eyed; the remaining ones had black eyes (38%). One-half (50%) of the study sample had caruncle; the remaining half had no caruncle. Red caruncle was predominant with the relative prevalence of 58.5%. The mean live weights of drakes and ducks were 3.16±0.814 kg and 2.05±0.449 kg, respectively. Coefficients of the phenotypic correlation between live weight and morphometric traits both in ducks and drakes ranged from 0.914 to 0.987 (P<0.01). The correlation coefficients showed that body length had the strongest relationship with live weight followed by wing length (r = 0.987 and 0.984). Regression analysis showed that body length and wing length had the highest coefficients of determination (R2 = 0.974 and 0.969), indicating that they were the best predictors of live weight. Also, the sampled Muscovy ducks showed a substantial level of variation in live weight and some morphometric traits, thereby pointing to probable gainful selection efforts. The regression equations in this study could serve as useful practical tools by livestock farmers, researchers and rural development workers for weight estimation in the field and for selection purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Different Rates of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Cow Dung on Yield and Yield Components of Maize Varieties (Zea mays L.) in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Iliyasu Audu

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i230127

Field experiments to study the performance of maize varieties (Zea mays L.) under different rates of nitrogen fertilizer and cow dung in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria were conducted in 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons at the Food and Agricultural Organization/Tree Crops Plantation (FAO/TCP) Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University Mubi. A split plot design was adopted for the study with two maize varieties assigned to the main plots and nitrogen with cow dung assigned to the subplots in a factorial combination. Nitrogen rates of 0, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 and cow dung 0, 1 and 2 ton ha-1 were used. Data were collected on number of cobs per plant, cob length, 100 grain weight and grain yield per hectare. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance using SAS system for windows 9.2 version 2005 and treatment means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test. Result showed that the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the yield and yield parameters increased significantly with the use of 120 kg N per ha-1 recording the highest for cob length (17.68 cm) 100 grain weighs (32.89 g) and grain yield (5658.3 kg). The control plot produced the least. Application of 2 ton ha-1 cow dung exhibited the highest yield. there was an interaction of variety with nitrogen on cob length and grain yield. Application of 120 kg N ha-1 significantly increased the yield of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) along with 2 ton ha-1 cow dung.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production Mapping and Description of the Organoleptic Qualities of Local Varieties of Plantain (Musa spp. AAB) Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire

H. Kouassi, E. Assemand, B. Konan, H. Gnahé

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 9-21
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i230128

Aims: A field survey was carried to apprehend the full diversity of Ivorian’s plantain. The aim was to produce a reliable and up-to-date production map of the local varieties. This study was also intended to determine their level of appreciation by local consumers on the basis of their physical, technological and sensory characteristics.

Place and Duration of Study: The enquiries data were collected in 87 villages distributed into 22 regions of Côte d'Ivoire, between September and December 2017.

Methodology: During the survey, data on the production, description, processing and consumption of local plantains were collected by direct individual interviews using a structured questionnaire. This information was collected in a participatory manner from 1232 (14 producers/villages).

Results: This study identified twenty-two (22) varieties of plantain, traditionally cultivated for several generations in Côte d'Ivoire. The greatest varietal diversity has been observed in the South-East and the East, notably in the regions of Sud-Comoé, Indénié-Djuablin, Mé and    Agneby-Tiassa. These varieties are variously appreciated according to their physical and organoleptic characteristics. People used them to make the usual plantain-based dishes found in Côte d’Ivoire. However, for the most questioned people, cooking specific plantain dishes requires the using of specific varieties with particular characteristics. The Agnrin, Molegna, N'gretia, Molekotoba, Ameletia, Purple banana and Banadiè varieties have been designated to be the best for “foutou”. In addition, the Banadiè variety, even in the green state, gives a nice yellow “foutou”. The above varieties are said to be perfect to prepare “Aloco”, “Docklounou” and “Clacro” at advanced ripening stages. The Afoto, Spotted banana, Kpatrè-kou, Kpatragnon, Kpatrè-n'san varieties, were recommended for “foutou”, “foufou”, roasted or chips because of their volume.

Conclusion: Further researches are underway to explain, scientifically, the sensory and technological differences usually observed between local plantains varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Properties of Soil Analysis under Rangeland Traditional Management Practice on Shilavo District, Somali Regional State, East Ethiopia

Mowlid Hassan, Zawde Tadesse, Mohamed Abdikader, Dinow Sharif

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i230129

Traditional management practice is emerging as one of the strategies to rehabilitate and restore degraded soils. In this study the important roles of area enclosure with comparison to an open sites were investigated for physicochemical properties of soil in rangeland of Shilabo district Somali region, east Ethiopia. The management types (5 yrs enclosures, 10 yrs enclosure and open grazing land) were taken as treatments. The sand, silt and clay content of CGL, 5E and 10E were 78, 76 and 75%; 8.67, 12.00 and 14.67% and 14.67, 10.33 and 10.33% respectively. Where the mean value of N, P and K for CGL, 5E and 10E were 0.04, 0.14 and 0.16%; 3.72, 3.91 and 5.96 mg/L and 0.16, 1.05 and 1.53 (cmol (+)/Kg soil respectively. The soil variable results revealed that soil organic matter, CECs, exchangeable Cat ions and soil moisture were significantly improved as a result of the enclosure. This study generally shows that area enclosure is a promising strategy to rehabilitate degraded environments as it is fast, cheap and lenient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-demographic and Economic Dynamics of Climate Change and Adaptation: A Study on Rural Farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria

Daniella Delali Sedegah, Adesola Ajayi, Benzies Adu-Okoree

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 31-38
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i230130

The study explored the relationship between key socio-demographic and economic variables on climate change adaptation strategies of rural farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. Three hundred (300) rural farmers were randomly selected from six (6) farming communities for the study. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to enrich understanding of relationships between socio-demographic variables and climate change. These variables: age, sex and marital status, size of households, religion, educational level, income source and social group belongingness were examined independently against the 16 adaptation strategies. The results showed high significance between some socio-economic variables and the adaptation strategy among farmers. The study revealed that age, gender, religious affiliation and social group belongingness showed significant relationships with coping strategies of the farmers. The study therefore recommends governmental and non-governmental activities directed towards enhancing capacities of agricultural extension services to address climate change susceptibility of rural farmers.