Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Metal Pollutants Bioaccumulation in Amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolor) Vegetables in Maiduguri, Nigeria

P. H. Bukar, J. A. Audu, M. U. Saidu, M. A. Onoja

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i330133

Assessment of metal pollutants bioaccumulation in amaranthus vegetables cultivated along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam was carried out with the aim of establishing the health risk associated with their consumption. Samples of amaranthus vegetables were analyzed for metal pollutants namely: Aluminum (Al), Manganese (Mn), Samarium (Sm), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Cobalt (CO), Chromium (Cr), Rubidium (Rb), Barium (Ba) Scandium (Sc), Thorium (Th), Antimony (Sb) and Vanadium (V) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) techniques. Four samples from each study site were collected, analyzed for concentration values and compared with the available values of safe limit given by WHO/FAO. From the result obtained, the maximum concentrations for Al was 1508 ± 018 at sampled site A2, for Mn was 179 ± 1 at sampled site A1, for Mg was 19890 ± 537 at sampled site A3, for Fe was 655 ± 40 at sampled site A4, for Zn was  85 ± 4 at sampled site A3 for Co was 20 ± 3 at sampled site A2, for Cr was 88 ± 21 at sampled site A4, for Rb was 18 ± 1 at sampled site A4, for Sc was 15 ±1 at sampled site A4, for Th was 33 ± 5 at sampled site A4, for Sb was 18 ± 2 at sampled site A2 and for V was 2.3 ± 0.5 at sampled sites A2, A3. The result showed that the maximum concentration of Fe, Cr, Mn and Co exceed the values recommended by FAO/WHO of 425.5, 1.3, 25 and 0.3 ppm respectively. Therefore, the consumption of vegetables cultivated on farmland soils along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam may constitute health risk overtime as these metals can accumulate in the body.

Open Access Original Research Article

Infestation and Yield Losses Due to Sesame Webworm (Antigastra catalaunalis, (Duponchel) on Different Sesame Varieties in Western Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Zerabruk Geremedhin, Ferdu Azerefegne

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i330134

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is the most important oilseed crop in Ethiopia. It is basically grown during the summer season in different regions of the country and produced mainly in the northern and northwestern lowlands of Ethiopia. The production of sesame is low because of insect pests such as sesame webworm, sesame seed bug and gall midge. Among these pests, sesame webworm is one of the most important insect pests and it attacks the crop at all growth stages and causes a significant yield loss. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess the infestation and avoidable yield losses of sesame due to sesame webworm on different released sesame varieties at field conditions. A field experiment was conducted to assess the infestation and yield losses with respective cost-benefit of nine released sesame varieties to sesame webworm in paired plots (treated with Diazinon 60% EC and untreated) in RCBD with three replications in 2016 production year. There was a significant difference (p<0.001) between the protected and unprotected plots of each variety in leaf, flower and capsule injury. Protection of sesame from the webworm with insecticide effectively reduced leaf (0.02%), flower (<2%) and pod (<1%) damage to very low levels, On the other hand, the unprotected sesame had high levels of infestation. The highest capsule injury was recorded on BaHa-Necho (9.68%) and varieties Adi, Setit-2 and Borkena sustained <5% capsule injury. Grain yield was also increased significantly (p<0.001) in the protected plots of the nine varieties as compared to their corresponding unprotected plots. Maximum yield was obtained from Setit-2, Setit-1, Humera-1 and Higher in both treated and untreated plots. The highest avoidable yield losses were obtained from Adi, Gonder-1, BaHa-Necho, and BaHa-Zeyit with respective cost-benefit ratio 2.27, 2.02, 2.12 and 2.03. Therefore integration of sowing the varieties  Setit-2, Setit-1, Humera-1 and Hirhir and spraying with Diazinon 60 EC, at a rate of one liter per hectare at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after crop emergence (WAE) has potential to reduce the yield losses of sesame due to sesame webworm infestation and to increase yield of sesame.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Guinea Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Cultivated on Fadama Soils in Maiduguri, Nigeria

P. H. Bukar, M. A. Onoja, J. A. Audu, M. U. Saidu

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i330135

River Ngadda is one of the main sources of water used by the resident of Maiduguri Metropolis The proximity of the people to the river encourages a lot of irrigation farming along the river bank during the dry season especially vegetables therefore, concentration values of heavy metals namely Aluminum, Cobalt, Iron, Lanthanum, Manganese, Chromium, Rubidium, Scandium, Samarium, Thorium, Vanadium and Zinc were determined in Guinea Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) vegetable samples obtained at six different locations on different dry season farming (Fadama) sites along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique which is a sensitive method for determination of major, minor and trace element in a matrix was used to assessed the heavy metal accumulation levels in Guinea Sorrel with the aim to establish the food safety status from heavy metals concentration levels for guinea sorrel cultivated along the bank of river Ngadda and Alau dam and consumed on a daily basis as compared to WHO/FAO recommended maximum permissible limit (MPL) for edible vegetables. The result obtained showed that the concentration values of Al ranged from 932 ± 18 to 3369 ± 54 ppm, Co 0 .12 ± 0.03 to 40 ± 4 ppm, La 1.00 ± 0.03 ppm to 38 ± 4 ppm, Manganese 112 ± 0.4 to 176 ± 1 ppm, Rubidium 4 ± 0.5 to 21 ± 1ppm, Sc 0.10 ± 0.007 to 27 ± 1 ppm Sm 0.106 ± 0.004 to 17.2 ± 0.4 ppm, V 1.10 ± 0.3 to 4 ± 1 ppm and Zn 17 ± 3 to 63 ± 4 ppm, and Fe 379 ± 33 ppm to 2316 ± 65 ppm. This result indicates that the maximum concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn and Co, in guinea sorrel from most of the sites were above the acceptable limits given by FAO/WHO for edible vegetables. Therefore, it is certain that there is the health risk associated with the continuous consumption of guinea sorrel vegetables cultivated from the study site and authors of this work hereby recommends that investigation of this kind should be carried out from time to time so as to know the buildup or otherwise of heavy metals in guinea sorrel cultivated in the study sites.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Chicken Feather Waste as an Adsorbent for Crude Oil Clean Up from Polluted Water

A. A. Okoya, N. O. Ochor, A. B. Akinyele, O. O. Olaiya

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 43-53
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i330136

The present study aims to evaluate the use of chicken feather waste (CFW) as an absorbent for the removal of crude oil from crude oil polluted water (CPW) in comparison with commercial activated carbon (CAC) ) in Nigeria. Oil pollution, can be as a result of natural disaster like earthquake, volcanic eruption, hurricane etc., or as a result of man’s interference for example terrorism, oil bunkering, tanker and oil rig accidents. CAC have been use as adsorbent for crude oil removal from the water environment but very expensive, hence the need to develop cheaper and environment friendly adsorbents from some agricultural waste which could constitute nuisance in the environment. The pulverized chicken feathers were characterized using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometer (RBS) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for elemental composition and the determination of surface morphology, respectively. The agricultural wastes used for this study was chicken feathers. The CFW was sourced from a local market at Ile-Ife, Osun State Nigeria, while commercial activated carbon was purchased from Uche-El Water Limited Company. The pulverized CFW was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Particle-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Elemental composition of the CFW showed the presence of Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sn, Pb and Si within the range 12.8 - 22566.3 ppm with agglomeration of particle. The results of the scanning electron microscope clearly showed the surface texture and morphological characteristics of CFW. The efficiencies of adsorption increased with increasing initial concentration for the two adsorbents except initial concentration of 20/30 which decreased in the case of CAC. The adsorption efficiencies for all the initial concentrations for the adsorbents is significantly different (F=16.114; P=0.000) at confidence interval of 0.05. CFW showed greater adsorption efficiency of 99.95%, followed by CAC which showed an adsorption potential of 95.08% (P=0.577 > C.I=0.05). The adsorption efficiencies obtained for the chicken feather compare very well with the activated carbon and even better as the dosages of the chicken feather increased. The result of the study shows that chicken feathers is an efficient sorbent for the mopping of crude oil spill in water.

Open Access Review Article

A Newly Emerged Pest of Tomato [Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)]: In Bangladesh – A Review on Its Problems and Management Strategies

Md. Nurul Huda, Tanzim Jahan, Hasan Fuad El Taj, Khalid A. Asiry

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i330132

Worldwide, tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most devastating invasive pests of tomato crops. It is one of the most important biotic constraints for tomato production which may lead to the production loss up to 100% if it cannot be controlled. T. absoluta comprises four developmental stages: egg, larvae, pupa, and adult with a rapid growth rate. Among these larvae is the most devastating stage which affects the fruit, leaves, and stem. Recently, T. absoluta is turned into a key pest of tomato in Bangladesh. This pest was first detected by IPM lab, Horticulture Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh from a commercial tomato grower in the village of Chaklarhat (26019’N, 88043’E) under the Tunirhat union of Panchagarh Sadar Upazila, Panchagarh district of Bangladesh in May 2016. Since its introduction in 2016, there was no sound action plan implemented. Therefore, this paper focused on relevant scientific knowledge regarding its biology, potential damage and different control measures which will open the windows for future researches for efficient and sustainable management strategies against T. absoluta in Bangladesh.