Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Response of Ixora coccinea (L.) Cuttings to Coconut Water Treatment under a Low Polythene Sheet Dome

Samuel Ebo Owusu

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i530142

Aims: To investigate the effects of coconut water treatment and polythene sheet dome on the establishment of Ixora coccinea (L.), stem cuttings.

Study Design: A 4 factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Multipurpose Crop Nursery of the University of Education, Winneba, Mampong campus between September and December 2019.

Methodology: Two hundred and forty (240) cuttings of equal length of 12 cm were excised and each cutting planted to a depth of 2 cm with 10 cm above the soil in each of the 240 potting bags, which were filled, with sterilized soil to a depth of 15 cm from the bottom leaving 1.5 cm from the top.

Results: Results showed that treatments with varying levels of coconut water in combination with the plain polythene dome had a significant influence on growth parameters. Increasing levels of coconut water resulted in a subsequent increase in the number of leaves, plant height, and roots as well as survival rate. The treatment with 100 ml coconut water in combination with polythene dome recorded the highest plant height, number of leaves per plant and number of roots per plant [12.22 cm, 21.89 and 22.00] respectively at the end of the experiment. The percentage survival of plants however reduced significantly by 60 DAP [83.33%] when compared no polythene dome(control) [94.44%].

Conclusion: The study concludes that Ixora coccinea (L.) cuttings treated with 100 ml of coconut water in combination with a polythene dome will enhance the growth and development of Ixora coccinea (L.) cuttings, however, the use of the polythene dome should be curtailed before 60DAP.

Open Access Original Research Article

Links between Farmers’ Socio-demographics and Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies in Hilly Terrains of Nandi County, Kenya

Joseph Kipkorir Cheruiyot

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 9-21
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i530143

Smallholder farms in Kenya continue to suffer from crop-productivity declines due to loss of soil quality as a result of soil erosion among other factors. Low adoption of soil conservation technologies persists in spite of previous interventions. This study was conducted to investigate links between farmers’ socio-demographic factors and the adoption of soil conservation technologies. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey design. Purposive and multi-stage random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 150 farmers from six catchment areas of the hilly terrain of Tinderet in Nandi County, Kenya. A total of 138 participants were accessed. Questionnaires administered by enumerators were used to collect data. Data was analysed to generate descriptive statistics. Kendall-Stuart Tau-c and Goodman-Kruskal’s gamma were used to estimate correlations between socio-demographic factors and adoption. Age, Gender, duration of residence and farm size were not significantly associated with adoption (P > 0.05).Education levels, household size, level of awareness and income were positively associated with adoption (Gamma =.359, P = .034), (Gamma = .229, P = .088), (Gamma = .485, P = .000) and (Gamma = .282, P = .042) respectively. It is recommended that stakeholders address soil erosion problems through farmers’ capacity-building, particularly for low-income farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytotoxic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. on Seed Germination and Growth Parameters of Maize (Zea mays L.)

O. S. Olubode, D. O. Ayoola

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i530144

Phytotoxicity of wild plants is sometimes utilized in the control of weeds. Their effects on crops are however not extensively documented. Effects of aqueous extracts of Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. were thus examined on seeds and seedlings of maize. Two experiments were laid out in complete randomized designs (CRD) and replicated five times. Ten seeds of maize were initially placed in separate petri-dishes and moistened daily with two (2) ml water extracts of different parts of Olax sp. while 2 ml of distilled water served as control. Secondly, maize seedlings growing on top soil in experimental pots were treated with 100 ml of extracts at seven days intervals for eight weeks. Data were collected on number of germinated seeds daily, and lengths of five randomly selected plumules and radicles at 7 days after sowing (DAS). Number of leaves, plant height, root dry weight and shoot dry weight of seedling were measured using standard methods. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test were conducted to statistically determine significant means at P=0.05. Mean germination of (0.71±0.00) was observed at 2 DAS and 2.81±0.10 at 7 DAS. Leaf extracts significantly reduced germinability, but significantly increased number of leaves, plant height (26±1.28), root dry weight (10.30±3.24) and shoot dry weight (14.99±2.13). The results showed that Olax subscorpioidea has alloallelopathic (phytotoxic) effects on maize seeds, but stimulated growth of maize seedlings. Its use as a bio-herbicide or growth stimulant in should be well-timed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Prevalence and Incidence of Sesame Gall Midge (Asphondylia sesami Felt) in Kafta-Humera District Tigray, Ethiopia

Assefa Abadi Kebede, Zerabruk Geremedhin Taferee, Weres Negash Golla

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i530145

Gall midge (Asphondilia sesame Felt) is one of the most serious insect pests of sesame threatening sesame production in Tigray, Ethiopia. The aim of the present study was to assess distribution and incidence of sesame gall midge and its association with different agronomic practices. Field survey was conducted in Kafta-Humera, districts in 2019 cropping season. A total of 60 farmers’ fields were assessed for the prevalence and incidence of the insect. Results indicated that 94% of farmers’ fields were infected by sesame gall midge from the total assessed fields. Sesame gall midge incidence ranged from 33.33-100% in the assessed Kebelles. The mean incidence gall midge was 81.74%. The highest mean incidences were recorded from Bereket, Adebay, Lugdi, Rawuyan. However, the lowest was recorded from Freselam.  Mean incidence of sesame gall midge was significantly (p < 0.05) variation with the sowing date, altitude and crop rotation. The lowest mean incidences of sesame gall midge, flower abortion and galled capsule were recorded from the early sowing date, lower altitude and previous grown with sorghum. Overall results of the present study indicated that sesame gall midge is one of the major challenges to sesame production in study areas. Therefore, efforts should be put in place to manage the insect via integration of appropriate management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Effects of Feeding Ecology of Double-spurred Francolin (Pternitis bicalcaratus linn.) On Crop Production in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Oluwafunke C. Owolabi, Akinsola I. Akinpelu, Kehinde E. Owolabi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 37-47
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i530146

Pternitis bicalcaratusis a bird with both positive and negative economic values. Due to the feeding habit they exhibit, they are regarded as agricultural pest. Despite their known to feed on both plants and insects materials, there has been no previous study on the effects of their feeding ecology on crop productions in Ekiti State. The study was therefore designed to determine link between bird’s habitat and their preferred food and the impact of the bird’s feeding ecology on crop production. The study was carried out in four Local Government Areas randomly selected from the northern and southern parts of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Eight farm areas were visited for field study and a well-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from 120 randomly selected respondents (hunters and farmers) from the study area. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Seventy seven point five percent (77.5%) indicated food as the major reason the bird were encountered in large numbers on the farm, majority (97%) of the respondents maintained that farm plantations were attacked by the bird and 84.6% of the respondents indicated that Pternitis bicalcalratus destroy farm produce to a large extent. Hence, the questionnaire and the field study established that the birds were specially linked to their feeding habitats (farm areas) and also revealed that the food and feeding habits of Double-spurred francolins had detrimental effect on farms crops in Ekiti State.