Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Soil Slope and Organic Materials on Changes of Land Physical Properties and Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) Production

Erita ., Sandri Sastrawan, Salmandi Futra, Hairunnas .

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 13-21
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i730153

The movement of water and organic material in the hill slope area influenced by the difference of soil slope and it play an important role to contribute the spatial differences of soil properties. Therefore, this study aims to examine changes in parameters of soil physical properties on various slopes due to the provision of types of organic matter (manure, coffee skins and Gliricidia leaves). This study also analys the influence of slope soil to the Napier grass production (Pennisetum purpureum). The study was obtained in the hilly areas of Paya Tumpi Village by using a split plot organic design. In deep analysis of change in parameters on the slope of the type of organic material on soil physics will be performed. The results showed that organic various types of slope and administration of various types of organic materials significantly affected the physical properties of the soil, namely permeability, porosity, aggregate stability index, fast drainage pore, slow drainage pore, available water pore, growth and yield of Napier grass. Gliricidia leaves compost is the best for growing Napier grass.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Profitability of Rice Production in Afikpo North L.G.A.

Uche Nkechi, Donatus, Jane, N. Uchenwachi, Margaret

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i730154

This study was carried out to determine the profitability of rice production in Afikpo North L.G.A Ebonyi State of Nigeria between April and September, 2019. Seventy (70) rice farmers (35 each) randomly selected from two prominent rice producing villages (Amasiri and Akpoha) in the study area were used as sample size. Questionnaires and personal interviews respectively were the basic primary and secondary means of data collection. Descriptive statistics, Gross margin analysis and Likert Scale were used to analyze the data obtained for socio-economic, profitability and constraints to rice production in the study area respectively. Results showed that socio-economic characteristics including gender, age, farm size, household, education etc are among the factors that affect rice production in the area. The result of likert scale showed that inadequate capital, high cost of labour, inadequate farm input etc were major constraints to rice production, while cost of transportation, cost of pesticide and marketing outlet were not considered as constraints rice production in the area. The result of gross margin analysis showed that Total Revenue and Gross margin were 270,000 and 214, 0000 respectively while Net Profit was N201, 500. The cost return ratio was 3.9k. This implies that the rice farming is highly profitable since the total revenue significantly outweighed the total cost. The cost return ratio of 3.9k implies that for every one naira invested in rice production about 4.0k is returned as profit. The study therefore recommends that Government should formulate agricultural enhancement policies that will address the major constraints observed in this study to ensure large scale and profitable rice production in Afikpo North LGA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Fortified Liquid Organic Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer on the Growth, Physiological and Pesticidal Response of African Nightshade (Solanum scabrum)

Valantine Asong Tellen, Stephanie Mbiseh

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 30-46
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i730155

Aims: To assess the effectiveness of fortified liquid organic manure, zero fertilizer applications and urea on the growth, physiological and pesticidal response of Solanum scabrum.

Study Design: Complete randomized block experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: The green house facility and agricultural research farm at the Pan African Institute for Development – West Africa (PAID-WA), Buea, Cameroon, from August to November 2017.

Methodology: Four experimental units with 4 treatments including: two fortified liquid organic manure (T1 and T2,) control (T3) and urea (T4), were established using 96 planting pots. The quantity and application rates for the liquid manure and urea were 4000 L/ha, once and twice a week, and 200 kg/ha, respectively. Leaf colour, leaf size, number of leaves per plant, plant height, stem collar diameter and growth rate were measured. Two plots with three soil beds each, was also established to record pesticide treatment response by counting the number of leaves eaten by insects

Results: T2 had darker green leaves, tallest plants (27.57±11.87 cm), highest number of leaves (27.65±25.46 units), largest leaf size (38.56±21.96 cm2), biggest stem collar diameter (1.54±0.41 cm) and highest growth rates (2.54±1.02, 5.18±3.40, and 0.11±0.03 cm/week for height, number of leaves and stem collar diameter, respectively). T2 effects differed significantly (P = 0.00) from T3 and T4. T2 and T1 also reduced pest attacks on leaves significantly (P = 0.00) compare to T3.

Conclusion: Liquid extracts concoctions of biomass and pesticidal botanicals prove useful towards the development of effective bio-repellent organic fertilizers. These can contribute to reducing the use of synthetic agro-chemicals, hence decreasing residual environmental and human health hazards.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analytical View on Water Use Efficiency of Some Main Crops Grown in the Non-costal Parts of Thrace Region

Recep Cakir

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 47-57
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i730156

The article contains data obtained from evaluations related to irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and water use efficiency (WUE), for the main crops, irrigated at different stages of growth, on the basis of some findings obtained in the Research Institute in Kırklareli. Each of the experimental crops was sown and farmed following procedures applied by the farmers in the region, except of the irrigation applications which were based on the sensitivity of a certain crop to water shortage in the soil, during the specific growth stages. Similar procedures were applied and all the experimental treatments were irrigated at growth stages, as predicted in the research methodology, and water amounts required to fill the 0-90 cm soil depth to field capacity were implied. Evaluation data obtained from the field experiments with three major crops, grown on the non-coastal lands of Thrace Region showed, that the productivity of irrigation water, as well as water use efficiencies of all analysed crops, are growth stage controlled. The highest IWUE and WUE efficiencies of 0.87 and 0.92 kg da-1 m-3; and 1.08 kg da-1 m-3 and 0.81 kg da-1 m-3; were determined for wheat and sunflower crops, irrigated at booting and flowering stages, respectively. Each m3 of irrigation water, applied during the most sensitive fruit formation stage (Ff) of pumpkin crop, provided additionally 8.47 kg da-1 fruit yield, 8.09 fruit numbers and 0.28 kg da-1 seed yields, more than those of rainfed farming (R).

Open Access Review Article

Review on Termite Mound Soil Characteristics and Agricultural Importance

S. Subi, A. Merline Sheela

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i730152

Addition of soil with various amendments to boost up the nutrient content and moisture holding capacity is necessary for improving the crop productivity. Among the various amendments, compost prepared from the crop residues attracted much attention in recent years. The crop residues used as feedstock are added with different bulking materials such as rice husk and sewage sludge.  In addition to these, termite mound soil which is available in plenty in tropical countries is found to be a suitable bulking material and is added with crop residues to obtain nutrient rich compost. In this paper we reviewed researches carried out on the characteristics, microbial diversity and organic matter degrading enzymes in termite mound soil. Further, the research carried out on the characteristics of compost amended with termite mound soil and its effect on crop productivity is also reviewed with the available literature. Majority of the investigations concluded that termite mound soil possessed more microbial population with a huge array of organic matter degrading enzymes. Few studies monitored the nutrient content of the soil and water holding capacity of the soil and crop yield when termite mound soil was used as a soil amendment. Limited studies were conducted using termite mound soil as a bulking material to compost crop residues. Based on the outcome of various studies, it is understood that the termite mound soil might be used as a soil amendment to increase growth and yield of crops.