Open Access Short Research Article

Study of Different Rates of Application of Mixture of Amidosulfuron and Iodosulfuron-Methyl-Sodium on Broadleaf Weed Infestation and Grain Yield of Soft Wheat

B. Hajjaj

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 29-34
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i930167

Aims: A soft wheat weed control trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of mixture of Amidosulfuron and Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium on controlling broadleaf weeds infestation in a soft wheat crop.

Study Design: The experimental design was a random block with three replications. Each block contained 4 elementary plots, 3 plots of which are treated with three doses of mixture of Amidosulfuron and Iodosulfuron-Methyl-Sodium and one untreated control plot.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments in Ouazzane region of Morocco. Laboratory measurements were carried out at weed research laboratory of INRA-CRRA Tangier. Morocco, between December 2016 and July 2017.

Methodology: Treatments was applied at weed seedling stage. Three doses of mixture of Amidosulfuron and Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium were applied. Observations were made 14,                   28 and 56 days after application of herbicides (DAT). Observations concerned selectivity of    applied treatments, percentage of weed density reduction, biomass reduction and soft wheat grain yield.

Results: Results showed that treatments with mixture of 15 g/ha Amidosulfuron + 3.75 g/ha Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium and 22.5 g/ha Amidosulfuron + 5.63 g/ha Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium gave the best control of broadleaf weeds infestations and provided the best wheat grain yield. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on soft wheat crop. Treatment with mixture of (15g/ha Amidosulfuron+ 3.75 g/ha Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium) recorded 95.7±1.3%, and 98.5±0.5% respectively on weed density reduction, and weed dry biomass reduction. Treatment with mixture of (22.5 g/ha Amidosulfuron + 5.63 g/ha Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium) recorded 98.5±0.5% and 98.8±0.3% respectively on weed density reduction and weed dry biomass reduction. Treatment with mixture of (7.5 g/ha Amidosulfuron + 1.88 g/ha Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium) recorded the lowest efficacies 60.7±10.2% and 70.2±3.3% respectively on weed density reduction and weed dry biomass reduction. Plots treated with mixture of (15 g/ha Amidosulfuron + 3.75 g/ha Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium) and (22.5 g/ha Amidosulfuron+ 5.63 g/ha Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium) recorded the highest yields of 3.65±0.1 and 3.46±0.3 tons/ha respectively an increase exceeding 74% over the control.

Conclusion: Mixture of (15 g/ha Amidosulfuron+ 3.75 g/ha Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium) and (22.5 g/ha Amidosulfuron+ 5.63 g/ha Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium) gave the best control of weed infestation in soft wheat and recorded the best grain yield. Therefore, mixture of (15 g/ha Amidosulfuron+ 3.75 g/ha Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium) can be recommended in similar weed infestation in soft weed crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Promising Popcorn Hybrids Developed from Local and Exotic Germplasm

K. I. Khalifa, M. G. Balba, M. A. Omar, H. A. Darwish, E. M. Ismail, N. A. Hasan

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i930164

Popcorn is considered as one of the oldest forms of field corn and mainly used as a snack food. In the time being, no local popcorn registered hybrids are available in Egypt and all country needs are imported hybrids. Therefore, there is a dire need to develop local popcorn hybrids. Using local and exotic germplasm, eighty-six promising yellow F1- hybrids were developed at Nubaria research station (30°54' N, 29°30' E) maize program, Field Crops Research Institute, ARC, Egypt. These hybrids were split into two groups (A and B); each one along with two exotic hybrid checks were evaluated under irrigation in 2019 at two environmentally different locations, one in north of Egypt and the other one in south of Egypt. Purpose of this investigation was to evaluate these promising hybrids for grain yield, number of days to mid-silk, plant height, resistance to late wilt disease and two quality traits i.e. popping volume and percentage of unpopped kernels. Randomized complete block design with 4 replications was used. All technical recommendations for maize production were applied. Highly significant differences were found among tested hybrids for all studied traits except number of wilted plants in trial A. Seven hybrids were selected, 5 from trial A and two from trial B. Hybrids # 11, 12, 17, 20 and 28 from trial A and 15, 33 from trial B. Results revealed that germplasm of Serbian origin was more beneficial to the national popcorn breeding program than other germplasm sources since most selected hybrids were of Serbian origin. Further evaluation of selected hybrids across multiple different locations is necessary before submission of selected hybrids to Variety Registration Committee.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strategies for Improving Agricultural Extension Service Delivery in Afikpo North Local Government Area, Ebonyi State

J. U. Ndem, B. N. Okafor, M. A. Ochijenu, F. Azuuku, L. I. Eni, C. Nwovu, C. N. Edu, C. M. Okpara

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 10-21
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i930165

This study determined the strategies for improving agricultural extension service delivery in Afikpo North Local Government Area, Ebonyi State Nigeria using three purposes of study. The study adopted survey research design. The population of the study was 81 contact farmers and extension agents. Data were collected with questionnaire which was validated by five specialists and analysis using mean statistics and standard deviation. It was discovered that training programmes, provision of essential amenities in the rural areas and incentives to the extension agents improve agricultural extension service delivery. All the hypotheses were accepted at (p < 0.05) level of significance. The researchers recommended that the Government of Ebonyi State should always organize training programmes, provision of essential amenities in the rural areas and incentives to the extension agents. Low productivity of agricultural commodities by rural farmers is as a result of inadequate extension education services which need proactive to ensure adequate extension education services. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fodder Crops on Weeds in Summer Rice Fallow

B. N. Bindhya, J. John

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i930166

In the summer rice fallow of double cropped low land rice filed, four different fodder crops were raised under varying nitrogen regimes with the objective of evaluating its effect on weeds, during 2017-18. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design. The fodder crops were fodder cowpea (CO- 9), rice bean (Bidhan- 2), fodder maize (African tall), fodder sorghum (CO (FS) 31). The varying nitrogen regimes were 100, 75 and 50 per cent recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN). The weed composition in the experimental field included grasses, sedges and broadleaved weeds. Both at 20 and 40 days after sowing (DAS), the weed population was more in fallow treatment. The weed dry matter production was significantly more in the fallow plot. At 40 DAS, weed dry matter production was relatively less in fodder cowpea. Weed smothering efficiency (WSE) was relatively greater in all the fodder crops except fodder cowpea at 20 DAS. However, at 40 DAS the WSE in rice bean, fodder maize and fodder sorghum declined, while in fodder cowpea it increased. Nitrogen removal at 20 and 40 DAS was significantly more in fallow plot. At 40 DAS, both N and P removal by weeds was significantly less in fodder cowpea. At 40 DAS, K removal was significantly less in fodder cowpea especially at 100 and 75 per cent RDN.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Farmyard Manure Application on Yield and Some Quality Characteristics of Popcorn (Zea mays L. everta Sturt) at the Organic Farming

Ayse Gulgun Oktem, Abdullah Oktem

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 35-42
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i930168

Aims: It was aimed to determine the effect of different levels of farmyard manure on yield and quality attributes of the popcorn (Zea mays L. everta Sturt) grown under second crop conditions.

Study Design: The experiment was set up according to randomized complete blocks experimental design with 3 replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: Research was conducted in 2018 under Harran Plain conditions as second crop, Sanliurfa, Turkey.

Methodology: Antcin hybrid popcorn variety was used as a plant material. Farmyard manure (FYM) applications were 0 (control), 1 tone da-1 FYM, 2 tone da-1 FYM, 3 tone da-1 FYM, 4 tone da-1 FYM, 5 tone da-1 FYM and 6 tone da-1 FYM. In study, plant height, stem diameter, grain yield, 1000 kernel weight, popping volume and protein ratio values were researched.

Results: Farmyard manure levels were significant in all tested characteristics. Farmyard manure levels effected positively on plant height (P≤0.05), stem diameter, grain yield, 1000 kernel weight, popping volume and protein ratio (P≤0.01). The highest plant height value was seen 6 tone da-1 application of FYM application whereas the lowest plant height value was found at control parcel. Stem diameter value ranged from 19.33 mm (control) to 23.87 mm (5 tone da-1 FYM). The highest grain yield value obtained from 6 tone da-1 FYM (489.71 kg da-1) while the lowest value was seen at control parcel (219.95 kg da-1). But 4, 5 and 6 tone da-1 FYM applications were found in same statistical groups. 1000 kernel weight values ranged from 159.60 g to 204.67 g. The highest popping volume value was seen 6 tone da-1 FYM treatment. Protein ratio (%) values ranged from % 9.27 to %14.01. The highest protein ratio was obtained from 6 tone da-1 FYM while the lowest protein ratio value was found at control parcel.

Conclusion: All farmyard manure levels effected positively on plant height, stem diameter, grain yield, popping volume and protein ratio. The highest grain yield value was seen at 6 tone da-1 FYM. But, 4, 5 and 6 tone da-1 FYM treatments were in the same statistical groups. There was no statistically significant increase in grain yield after 4 tone da-1 farmyard application (478.57 kg da-1). According to research results, considering grain yield, popping volume and protein ratio values, 4 tone da-1 farmyard manure was seen sufficient in organic popcorn cultivation.