Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Vigour of Quality Protein Maize Varieties Belonging to Different Maturity Groups

Olasoji Julius Oluseyi, Ajayi Sunday Adesola

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i1030169

Laboratory tests were carried out to investigate inherent quality differences among stored seeds of early, intermediate and late-maturing quality protein maize using completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications at the Seed Testing Laboratory of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria for two consecutive years (2014 and 2015). From the results, germination and accelerated ageing germination traits were affected by the storage period. Similarly, the seed performance on germination, accelerated ageing and the conductivity test were seen to be better in early-maturing than in other maturing maize genotypes. The speed of germination measured as the germination index was low; ranging from 3.24-3.68 days after sowing (DAS) irrespective of the maturity group. Seedling traits measured after physiological quality tests were equally affected by the storage period and the maturity group. All the seedling traits measured were better in the early-maturing genotypes. Seed quality measured by laboratory quality assessments showed that genotypes in the early-maturing group are of high quality. Seeds of early-maturing genotypes retained significantly higher physical and physiological quality parameters and appear to have inherent potential to withstand effects of deterioration due to their slower rate of quality decline.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal and Microbial Contaminants of Some Vegetables Irrigated With Goo Reservoir Water, Navrongo, Ghana

Theophilus Atio, Abalori, Conrad Atogi-Akwoa, Weobong

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 11-24
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i1030170

Globally, the safety of vegetables for consumption is becoming an increasing concern to consumers because of the risk associated with eating of vegetables contaminated with heavy metals and microbial organisms. An assessment of the extent of microbial contamination and also levels of heavy metals and the risk associated with the consumption of the vegetables irrigated with polluted Goo reservoir water in the Navrongo municipality was carried out. Site A used the channel flooding irrigation method whilst site B used watering cans for watering during the latter part of the dry season when the pressure of the water is low. A total of 128 vegetables samples were taken for microbial and heavy metals determination each. Samples of leafy vegetable and fruit vegetables were randomly taken from the two sites for microbial and heavy metal analysis. The reservoir was divided to North, South, East and West and water samples taken from each location. The concentrations of heavy metals in the reservoir exceeded the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) recommended levels of metals in water for irrigation. Site B recorded the highest microbial counts likewise heavy metal contaminants in the sampled vegetables. Levels of cadmium in the vegetables exceeded the World Health Organization/FAO permissible levels. Copper (Cu) had the highest concentration in both sites. Faecal Coliform (FC) levels in the vegetables were above the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Food (ICMSF) allowable limits. The high quantities of Total Coliform, Faecal Coliform, E. coli, helminthes eggs and salmonella contamination of the vegetables indicate high risk of getting diseases through the consumption of these vegetables. The hazard quotient of all the metals exceeded one in both sites except Zinc (Zn). The hazard index (HI) of heavy metals studied was above one in both sites, indicating they could have adverse health effect to human life. The analysis showed there was significant difference in microbial counts and levels of heavy metals in the vegetables in the two different sites. The consumers of these vegetables were at risk of contracting water-borne diseases like typhoid fever, cholera among others and also a high risk of heavy metal poisoning especially from cadmium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Floristic Response of Herbaceous Flora to Intensive Cropping Systems: A Case of Ajibode-sasa Arable Agroecosystem, Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria

Olayanju, Folasayo Micheal, Olubode, Oluseun Sunday

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 25-37
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i1030171

Agriculture a most significant land use types which alter natural ecosystem dynamics. Arable farming exerts much pressure on plant biodiversity, especially when practiced intensively in urban centers. There is dearth of information on floristic changes due to intensive arable farming in urban agroecosystems in developing countries. The study therefore assessed floristic changes resulting from and intensive farming practices at Ajibode-Sasa agricultural landscape. Ajibode-Sasa agroecosystem is a complex mix of arable cropping system between latitude N07°28′, E003°53′ and longitude N07°28′, E003°54. Comparative floristic surveys were conducted in 2016 and 2020 using quadrats (1 m2) systematically laid on 18 Transects ranging from 50 – 250 m long. A total of 224 and 184 quadrats were laid in 2016 and 2020 respectively. Reduction in numbers of quadrats laid resulted from physical anthropogenic development after the 2016 survey. Species identification followed standard procedures, and quantitative occurrence data were collected for determination of species composition and computation of relative importance values (RIV) and diversity indices. Land-use changes over four years period was determined using Google earth and QGIS. Herbacous plant composition with 123 cumulative number of species in both years reduced from 98 species in 2016 to 85 species in 2020 species RIV of species ranged from 0.038 – 14.803. Tridax procumbens had the highest RIV (14.803) in 2016, while it was Acmella brachyglossa (13.248) 2020. Species richness and floral diversity was high with Shannon-Weiner Index (3.081 and 3.088) and Dominance (0.09388 and 0.08746) in 2016 and 2020 respectively. Intensive cultivation favoured introduction and spread of invasive species like Tridax procumbens and Tithonia diversifolia. Eight introduced and invasive species were newly enumerated in 2020, with a total of 38 herbaceous species no longer encountered in 2020. Concerted efforts should be made to conserve native flora on the agroecosystem through sustainable practices like crop rotation and short fallow.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perspectives of Return Sustainability in Rural Areas of Podrinje

Edin Ramić, Besim Salkić, Emir Imširović, Ahmed Salkić, Ensar Salkić

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i1030173

The return of refugees and internally displaced persons is an activity in which all individuals are provided with the opportunity to return voluntarily, safely and with dignity to their homes that they had to leave during the conflict. Even after more than a decade, the problem of refugees and internally displaced persons is generally very topical [1]. Even eighteen years after the war, there are still many problems related to IDPs. It’s not just the return process that’s problematic. Displaced persons face various challenges related to access to employment, public services, education and infrastructure [2]. In Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter BiH), during the 1992-1995 war, 2.2 million people were forced to flee their homes [3]. Upon return, returnees should seek restitution or compensation and should receive strong reintegration and rehabilitation support to build a livelihood and contribute to long-term economic and political development. Safe and voluntary return includes a guarantee of return choices and security for those who choose to return. The aim of the study was to examine the views of returnees on the problems in society faced by the population / returnees in three different time periods, in 1992, after return and today, to improve the conditions for sustainable return. Unemployment is ranked in the top three as the most significant problem of the population returning to their homes. The justice system, the problem of minorities, public funding, security, the slow EU accession process and climate change are not considered by returnees as significant problems for sustainable return.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Stress Limits Growth and Physiological Performance of Jatropha curcas L. Seedlings

Bassirou Sine, Bassiaka Ouattara, Diariétou Sambakhé, Alassane Waly Ngom, Aïda Ndiaye

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i1030174

Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a potential biodiesel plant that gained much attention in non-oil production countries. We investigated the ability of the species to cope with water deficit occurring in semi-arid zones like Senegal climatic conditions. The layout of the experiment was a randomized complete blocks design with two factors (level and frequency of irrigation) and 6 repetitions. The trial was conducted from December 2012 to June 2013 in CERAAS/ISRA at Thiès, Senegal. Potted Jatropha seedlings were exposed, after three months under similar well-watered conditions, to three water regimes (100%, 50% and 25% of field capacity, respectively C100, C50 and C25) and two frequency of watering once and twice watering a week(F1 and F2, respectively). The different treatments didn’t affect significantly collar diameter and plant height during the time of the experimentation. Nevertheless, the trend line is up for collar diameter and plant height in well-watered plants. For the same frequency of irrigation, biomass accumulated was high in C100. No difference was found between plants biomass in C25-F1 and C25-F2. For physiological parameters, there are no differences between the treatments at the onset of stress. However, after 2 weeks of stress, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration were affected permanently in treatments C100-F1, C50-F1 and C25-F1 and their values never reached those of plants of C100-F2, 50-F2 and C25-F2. The opposite was noted for leaf temperature. For the same frequency of irrigation, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration were higher in C100 and the opposite occurred for the leaf temperature. These results demonstrate that growth and productivity of Jatropha are significantly affected by water stress conditions. Its need to be watered regularly to maintain physiological functions and biomass production definitely highlights that its growth in semi-arid zones is economically unlikely.