Open Access Original Research Article

Animal Production, Resource Engagement and Sustainability of Return

Edin Ramić, Besim Salkić, Ensar Salkić, Amir Zenunović, Adela Mujić

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i1130176

In recent years, the topic of sustainability of return has been topical. A significant number, if not the vast majority, are in fact returnees to rural areas in the wider area of ​​Bosnia and Herzegovina.  There are many objective reasons why this is so, but in this paper we will deal with the perspectives of sustainable return on the example of the region "Srednje Podrinje". Animal production imposes itself as the simplest form of production in order to engage existing resources owned by returnees, primarily land. However, one of the problems faced by the inhabitants of rural areas is the lack of knowledge about the markets for agricultural products, in connection with their chances but also threats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Composition of Locally Available Browses Consumed by Matschie’s Tree Kangaroos (Dendrolagus matchiei) in Six North American Zoological Facilities

Ellen S. Dierenfeld, Marisa Bezjian, Lisa Dabek

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2020/v21i1130177

Locally collected browses (n=17 spp.) consumed by Matschie’s tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus matschiei) in 6 North American zoological institutions were analyzed for comparison with native plants eaten by this species in Papua New Guinea to evaluate dietary suitability.  Primary nutrients including crude protein and fat, fiber, starch, non-fiber carbohydrates, and ash were determined using standard analytical methods for forages.  Macrominerals calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na) and sulfur (S), as well as trace elements copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn) were quantified in leaf (n=18), flower (n=1), twig (n=9) and bark (n=6)   samples.  Tannin content was estimated through the bovine serum albumin methodology.  On a dry matter basis (DMB) , foods averaged (± SD) moderate protein (12 ± 5%) and soluble carbohydrate (27 ± 12%) content, along with low starch (1 ± 1%) and crude fat (3 ± 2%) values, and moderate to high values in fiber fractions (neutral detergent fiber 49 ± 15%, acid detergent fiber 33 ± 13%, lignin 11 ± 5%). Macromineral concentrations (Ca 2.2 ± 1.6%, P 0.2 ± 0.1%, Mg 0.3 ± 0.2%, K 1.5 ± 0.6%, Na 0.03 ± 0.04%, S 1.2 ± 1%) and select trace minerals were within anticipated ranges (Cu 11 ± 5 mg/kg, Mo 1 ± 1 mg/kg and Zn 33 ± 18 mg/kg); exceptions Fe (122 ± 11 mg/kg) and Mn (51 ± 81 mg/kg) were considered on the high end of dietary adequacy for most herbivores. Leaves differed significantly from woody parts for all proximate nutrients, as well as K, S, Fe, and tannin content.  Consumed in a 50:50 DMB ratio, locally available browses provide similar nutrient profiles as plants eaten by free-living tree kangaroos.  Combined data provide  information useful in establishing nutrient targets for dietary development, leading to improved health, welfare, and feeding management of tree kangaroo populations under human care.