Open Access Original Research Article

Cost and Return Analysis of Small-scale Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Production in Camarines Sur, Philippines

Ma. Teresa B. Lirag

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i130178

The presence of cacao industry plays a critical role in the economic development of a country. A study was conducted to determine the cost, return and added value along the value chain stages of cacao in Camarines Sur, Philippines. Sixty-eight farmers served as respondents using purposive sampling technique and interviews/key informant surveys were conducted. Results of the study showed that cacao production has high return on investment of 77.89% and 160% for the farmer and processor, respectively but a low return on investment of 13% for traders. The value added from farmer to processor is Php 590.00/kilogram, and Php 125.00/kilogram from processor to trader. Various opportunities and prospects for cacao production had been identified such as increased technical and production support from the government, presence of R & D programs, increasing trend towards wellness & healthy lifestyle, and increasing businesses offering cocoa-based products. Recommendations include improvement in access and availability of processing facilities, improvement of market information for farmers, provision of trainings to enhance capability of farmers, strengthening of farmers’ groups to increase their access to technical and financial assistance from government and provision of infrastructure support and storage facilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Mechanic Village Activities on Selected Soil Properties in Abakaliki Southeastern Nigeria

C. Njoku, C. N. Mbah, O. Elom, J. O. Agwu

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i130179

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mechanic village on selected soil physico-chemical properties and heavy metals content in Abakaliki Southeastern Nigeria. Five replicate soil samples were collected from arable land (Control), lorry automobile repair site (Lorry), motorcycle automobile repair site,(motorcycle) car and bus repair site(car and bus),  automobile spare parts market (spare parts). These samples were taken to laboratory for the determination of selected soil physico-chemical properties and heavy metal content. The data obtained from this research was analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on CRD and difference between treatment means were dictated using F-LSD at P < 0.05. The result showed significantly (p < 0.05) adverse effect among the different automobile locations studied with respect to control in bulk density, total porosity, mean weight diameter and aggregate stability. The chemical properties of soils of mechanic village were also significantly adversely affected by mechanic village. The observed heavy metals in mechanic village were higher than the recommended ranges in soils. Therefore, it advisable that some agronomical practices that could increase the nutrients and lower the heavy metals level should be employed in order to get high crop yield and safe produce.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Fish Biodiversity of Nijhum Dwip, Noakhali, Bangladesh

Md. Ibrahim Khalil, Tasnim Sultana, Md. Robiul Hasan

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i130180

Aims: The investigation was concerned to assess the diversity status of fish in Nijhum Dwip, Hatiya, Noakhali with its management actions.

Place and Duration of Study: Nijhum dwip declared as marine protected area is blessed with unique ecosystem with holding numerous flora and fauna species diversity. Data and fish sample were collected from February, 2019 to July 2019 for a period of five month.

Methodology: The current research was grounded on visiting fish landing center and fish market, on spot date collection, interview of the fishermen and the fish traders, sample collection and secondary data collection.

Results: In investigation, 39 species in 22 families were witnessed. The maximum numbers of fish species (8) were observed from the family Cyprinidae. From the survey, 4 species were endangered (EN), 5 species were vulnerable (VU), 2 species were near threatened (NT), 22 species were least concern (LC) categories, 6 species were not threatened (NO) which is grounded on IUCN (2015) list of threatened fishes of Bangladesh. The marine fish and freshwater fish alignment in the research region were 33% and 67% in turn.

Conclusions: The species scarcity or decline is demonstrated by the non-availability and less availability of some of the species in the adjacent area as well as in the country. The policy makers, researchers as well as local people would be able to aware with their existing biodiversity status and also significance of fish fauna of the study area by appropriate evaluation and proper documentation of fish fauna.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pest Risk Analysis and Management Practices for Increasing Profitability of Lemon Production

Shahriar Hasan, Md. Enamul Haque, Md. Safiul Islam Afrad, M. Zinnatul Alam, Muhammad Ziaul Hoque, Md. Riazul Islam

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i130181

The study aimed at assessing the pest risk and management practices of lemon production and its profitability in Tangail district of Bangladesh. Household survey was conducted by an interview schedule from 120 lemon growers who were selected as sample respondents following a proportionate random sampling technique. Lemon butterfly and dieback disease were identified as important problems in lemon cultivation. Lemon butterfly was found with the highest infestation in Elachi lemon (70.0%) and Kagozi lemon (57.0%). Dieback disease was found with the highest infestation rate of 49.3% in Elachi lemon, 38.0% in Kagozi lemon, and 33.3% in Sakara-2 variety. Almost 82.5 percent of the respondents had medium to high adoption of pest management practices. The adoption of pest management practices was positively related to the profitability of lemon cultivation. However, there is further scope to make pest management practices sustainable by enhancing the adoption of biological, cultural, and mechanical approaches.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-fuel Production Potentials of Jatropha, Produced by Combined Application of Rice Husk Dust and NPK in Southeastern Nigeria

E. O. Azu Donatus, B. A. Essien, S. I. Ijearu, P. E. Nweke

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 36-45
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i130182

In this study, we investigated the fruit, seed yield and biofuel production potentials of Jatropha curcas in soils fertilized with different rates of rice husk dust (RHD) and NPK 10:10:10. This study took place at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana from April 2020 to March 2021. Treatments comprised of six rates (0, 1,2,3,4 and 5 ton ha-1) each of RHD and NPK, arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a factorial pattern. Nursery Jatropha seedling of average heights of about 30 cm and 5-6 true leaves were transplanted to the field a month after treatment application. Our measurement between 10 to 12 months of Jatropha growth focused on the number of fruits, weight of fruits, number of seeds, weight of seeds and quantity of oil per plant. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) tools were used to analyze the obtained data and separated the significant means respectively. The relationship between yield parameters and selected soil chemical properties was determined using correlation analysis. Results indicated that relative to control, addition of RHD and NPK as lone and combined treatments increased the fruit, seed yield and oil quantity of Jatropha. Relative to control, fruit number increased by 72.80%, fruit weight by 79.81% and number of seeds by 80.73%. Similarly, the seed weight and oil content increased by 28.11% and 21.485 respectively. Organic matter, available phosphorus and total nitrogen had highly significant correlation with fruit, seed yield and oil quantity. Treatments combination of 5tonha-1 RHD and 5tonha-1 relatively gave the most appreciable result in fruit, seed yield and oil quantity and therefore recommended.