Open Access Short Research Article

Agronomic Performances and Nutritional Value of C. olitorius in Burkina Faso

Kiébré Mariam, Sawadogo Nerbewende, Kiebre Zakaria, Sawadogo Boureima, Sawadogo Zakaridja, Sawadogo Mahamadou, Bationo-Kando Pauline

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 35-44
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i230186

Jute mallow (C. olitorius) is a traditional leafy vegetable from Africa and Asia. The richness of its leaves in nutritional elements such a (iron, zinc, potassium and beta carotene) makes it an excellent nutritional supplement for pregnant women and children. It is one of the most important leafy vegetable consumed in Burkina Faso. However, leaf biomass yields remain low and production is still unable to meet the increasing demand. Therefore, the study aims to evaluate the agronomic performances of four morphotypes identified during our previous studies. It will be also question to evaluate their biochemical composition and to study the relationship between agronomic and biochemical traits. Four morphotypes were evaluate agronomical according to Fisher block design using 12 quantitative traits. Fresh leaves of each morphotype were then used for determination of beta-carotene content and mineral element content.The results of the study showed great variability in the agronomic performance and biochemical composition of the four morphotypes. The morphotype (SBL1) with green and shiny leaves expressed the best performance in biomass and number of primary branches as well as in nutritional elements such as iron, potassium and beta carotene. This morphotype could be used as a breeding parent in an extension program for the valorization of this leafy vegetable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Fresh and Thawed Semen of Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) in Yucatán Mexico

Montes-Pérez Rubén, Mukul-Yerves Jose, Silva-Mena Carlos, Magaña-Monforte Juan

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i230183

This research aimed to characterize the seminal properties of collared peccary Pecari tajacu before and after freezing, and to relate the morphometric measurements of the testes with sperm measurements before freezing. The study design was quasi-experimental in nature. The investigation was carried out at the Xmatkuil Wildlife Management and Conservation Unit and the Centennial Zoo in the state of Yucatan, Mexico, during the months of October to December 2001. Seventeen collared pecaries adult were electroejaculation from two captive populations. Macro and microscopic analyzes of fresh and thawed semen were carried out, also morphometric measurements of the testes, the data of sperm measurements were compared with Student´s  t-test, a linear regression model was adjusted between spermatic and morphometric variables of the testis. Logistic regression was performed between seminal freezability and spermatic and morphometric variables. The ejaculate volume was 0.96 ± 0.98 ml, with 62.08 ± 19.10% sperm motility, concentration of 558.61 ± 537.04 x 106 spermatozoa / ml of fresh semen and vigor of 3.7 ± 0.58 on a scale of 1 to 5. On thawing the motility sperm was 35 ± 17.18% and 2.75 ± 0.62 vigor. The measurements of the sperm cell segments did not show a significant difference between the individuals of the two populations. Testicular width and sperm concentration were fitted to the logistic regression model with freezability (1 = yes, 0 = no). It is concluded that testicular width is a factor significantly associated with sperm motility and seminal freezability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Indigenous Chicken Productivity and Associated Farm-Level Attributes among Producers in the Western Parts of Kenya

Joseph Kipkorir Cheruiyot, Merina Adhiaya

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 11-25
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i230184

Indigenous chicken production is an important sub-sector in Kenya. About 90% of rural communities keep indigenous chicken in small flocks. They provide the much needed high value protein and income for the rural households. Despite its importance; the productivity of the sub-sector greatly varies depending on the management systems deployed by the producers. The management systems are thought to be influenced by demographic; socio-economic and information literacy factors. This study investigated the potential links between these factors and indigenous chicken productivity in two regions in the Western parts of Kenya. The survey study adopted a descriptive approach. Semi-structured interview schedules were used to collect data from a sample of 106 smallholder producers. Purposive and multi-stage sampling techniques were used to select the participants from among producers who had shown interest in the commercialization of indigenous chicken following awareness meetings conducted by public extension agents in the two regions. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and correlation estimates using Kendalls’ tau-b and Goodman-Kruskalls’ Gamma coefficients. Gender; education levels; flock size; information literacy and access to markets had significant association (P < .05) with some indigenous chicken productivity indicators that were investigated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Isolates against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) under Controlled Conditions

Mellon Kabole, Dora Kilalo, Maina Muiru, Danny Coyne

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 26-34
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i230185

Callosobruchus maculatus FaB (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is a major field-to-store post-harvest pest of in the tropics and worldwide.  They cause weight loss, decreased germination potential and reduction in commercial and aesthetic value as a result of physical contamination of grain by insects, eggs and excrement, decreased nutritional value. Entomopathogenic fungi have been employed in control of a number of storage pests and has been demonstrated to have potential in control of C. maculatus in cowpea during storage. Nine B. bassiana isolates were evaluated for effectiveness in controlling C. maculatus in cowpea grain under controlled laboratory conditions. Mortality of the bruchids was evaluated stepwise where the most effective isolate concentrations against C. maculatus were assessed. Initial assessment involved determination of the most effective concentration among the isolates following dilution. The isolates showed significant differences on the mortality of cowpea bruchids at the different concentrations. Isolate J35 had 98.2% mortality at 5 days after application during the first season and 88.3% during the second season, which was only lower to the formulated isolates BBC and BVT. The current study shows the pathogenic effectiveness of B bassiana on C. maculatus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Soil Physicochemical Properties, Soil Seed Bank and Species Density of Five Plant Communities in Awka Anambra State

Archy O. Nora, U. K. Ekwealor, I. E. Mbaekwe, Izundu, I. Alex, C. F. Iroka

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 45-54
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i230187

The research study investigated the physicochemical properties of the soil in five different locations around Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka campus for their above ground and seed bank status with regards to their germination rate and species density. The study areas were located at Cattle grazed field at gariki Amansea, abandoned farmland near Chisco Transportation and Engineering workshop, frequently mowed lawn at Unizik e-library, a Savanna woodland behind the banking plaza Unizik  and tropical lowland forest at Botanical garden Unizik. The seed bank investigation was conducted from September 2016 to March, 2017. Analysis of variance was used to test significant differences between seed bank densities among experimental plots at different soil horizons. The soil physiochemical parameters among the experimental plots were also analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Significant differences were tested at P= 0.05 at 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed the highest value for above ground species was found in tropical lowland forest (53.67±6.11) while the lowest was in cattle grazed field (8.00±0.82). Meanwhile the highest value for seed bank was in the frequently mowed lawn Unizik e-library (93.00±18.00) and the lowest was in the forest (6.50±4.95). The comparison of the two groups using T-test revealed that there was a significant difference between the above ground and seed bank values of the tropical lowland forest P=0.003 and also between the above ground and seed bank values of the frequently moved lawn, Unzik e-library P=0.001. More so, the Savanna above ground values and seed bank species value were not significant at P=0.006, as well as cattle grazed field (8.00 ± 0.82) and (50.00± 19.31) at P=0.006. Also, the Savanna plot comparison of above ground (44.50±3.54) and the seed bank (14.00±5.20) revealed significant differences between the two groups at P=0.006. Electrical conductivity was highest in the cattle grazed field (40.00+1.08) and the highest pH value was found in the Unizik e-library (6.19+0.22). Sorensen’s coefficient index revealed the highest similarity between above ground and seed bank species occurred in the cattle-grazed field followed by the frequently mowed lawn Unizik e-library (0.196), then the abandoned farmland (0.074), the Savanna (0.060) and the forest (0.025) respectively. Since the similarity is measured between 0 and 1, it means therefore that there is a weak similarity (0.276) between above ground vegetation and the seed bank in the cattle grazed field while the frequently mowed lawn (0.196) above ground similarity with seed bank was very weak. There is no similarity (0.025) between the above ground vegetation and the seed bank in the tropical forest. This seed bank investigation showed that the number of plant species in the seed bank does not reflect the total number of species in the above ground and the soil properties have an impact on the species density of the areas.