Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment of Surface Water for Domestic and Agricultural Purposes Using Hydro-chemical and Microbial Studies in Kilifi County, North Coast Region of Kenya

Bridgits Inyangala, Lenny Mwagandi Chimbevo, Paul Sifuna Oshule, Suliman Essuman, Mwangome Muye Chongomwa, Norbert Adum Atego

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i430193

Water has economic and ecological significance. However, quality deterioration due to salinity causes significant decrease in agricultural productivity and a public health problem. This study focuses on hydro-chemical and microbial quality of water sources in Kilifi County. Water samples were collected from 25 different locations within Kilifi County and indicators of salinity and microbial load analyzed. Temperature, pH, EC and TDS were determined using portable pH meter. Anions; F-, Br-, Cl-, SO42-, PO43-, NO2-, NO3-, CO32-, HCO3- and NH4+ were determined using Ion Exchange Chromatography. Cations; Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Al3+ and Ag+ were determined using flame photometry. Standard methods were used to determine Microbial loads. Results were pH (7.42±0.52), Temperature (24.61±0.21oC), EC (3.44±0.75 dscm-1), TDS (1672.53±122.87 mgL-1) and Turbidity (152.29±41.20 NTU). Anions; F- (2.90±0.24 mg/L), Cl- (1756.68±900.50 mg/L),  NO2- (4.47±0.49 mg/L), Br- (11.72±1.20 mg/L), NO3- (4.67±0.38 mg/L), HCO3- (200.54±25.58 mg/L) PO43- (0.94±0.10 mg/L), CO32- (29.94±2.32 mg/L), and SO42- (300.64±42.47 mg/L). Cations; K+ (8751.80±214.04 mgL-1), Na+ (59.43±1.98 mgL-1), Ca2+ (4.00±0.16 mgL-1), Mg2+ (59.43±1.98 mgL-1), Zn2+ (0.76±0.30 mgL-1), Cu2+ (0.18±0.01 mgL-1), Ag+ (0.03±0.01 mg/L), Cd2+ (0.07±0.01 mg/L), Cr3+ (0.35±0.01 mg/L), Al3+ (0.33±0.01 mg/L) and NH4+ (2.01±1.96 mg/L). Microbial load; MPN (20811.00±402.00), Total coliforms (2970.00±60.00 CFU 100 mL-1), E. coli (26.00±3.00 CFU 100mL-1), S. aureus (411.00±12.00 CFU 100mL-1), Shegela (24.00±2.00 CFU 100mL-1) and S. typhi (67.00±2.00 CFU 100mL-1). Temperature, pH, EC, TDS, Turbidity, F-, Cl-, Br-, PO43-, Na+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and microbial load were above WHO limits whereas SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, CO32-, HCO3-, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Al3+ and Ag+ were below WHO limits. The study concludes that water sources in Kilifi County are unsuitable for domestic and agricultural uses. It’s recommended that a continuous water quality monitoring program be put in place and development of effective management practices for utilization of the surface water resources be instituted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interactive Influence of Location and Variety on Physiological Quality of Cowpea Seeds (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.)

F. E. Awosanmi, M. Ogunleye, G. O. Awosanmi, B. S. Olisa, S. A. Ajayi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 20-25
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i430194

The production environment plays a significant role in the production of high-quality seeds. Therefore, the knowledge of the relative contributions of the different factors that impact seed quality will be important for the management of seed production. The objective of this study was to assess the relative contribution of location and variety to the physiological quality of the cowpea seeds. Seeds of two varieties of cowpea, IT97K-918-118 and 977K-1499-35 were produced at three locations: Ikenne, Ilora, and Ballah. Hundred seed weight, seed moisture content, standard germination, accelerated ageing germination and electrical conductivity tests were carried out on the seeds. The results indicated that the location effect was highly significant (P<0.05) for hundred seed weight, germination percentage, germination rate index, accelerated ageing germination percentage and accelerated ageing germination rate index, while the varietal effect was highly significant for only hundred seed weight. However, location alone contributed more than 50% to the observed variability in hundred seed weight, germination percentage, germination rate index and accelerated ageing germination percentage. Seeds from Ballah had the highest viability (germination percentage = 84.67%) but also the lowest vigour (accelerated ageing germination = 11%; electrical conductivity = 64.10µscm-1g-1). Thus, the modulating effect of the environment on the quality of cowpea seeds is not the same for the different components of quality and the choice of location for the production of cowpea seeds should be given a higher priority than a choice of variety per se.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role and Sustainability of Community-based County Government Funded Agricultural Infrastructure Projects: A Case of Community Cattle Dips and Acaricides Use in Kilifi, Kajiado and Nakuru Counties

Lenny Mwagandi Chimbevo, Norbert Adum Atego, Paul Sifuna Oshule, Job Mapesa, Suliman Essuman, John Huria Nderitu, Micah Nyabiba Asamba, Chris Ngeny

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 26-36
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i430195

The study objective was to provide baseline and reference data on status and use of acaricides based on type or active ingredients by individual farmers and in public cattle dip maintained by county governments. The survey was conducted through a cross-sectional study in three counties (Kilifi, Kajiado and Nakuru), based on livestock farming intensive (low, medium and high) respectively. A total of 72 farmers were sampled where Questionnaire and informal interview were used to collect data on acaricides use, grazing method, herd characteristics, production and marketing. Data obtained was stored in excel spread sheets coded and analyzed using Statistical Package for social Scientists (SPSS). Grazing systems were conventional grazing (31), zero grazing (10) and fenced pastures (41). Collapse of county governments maintained cattle dips was observed. Hence use of alternative methods by farmers; spray race (22) and mechanical (hand) spray (31). Chemicals used included TRIATIX (12), DUODIP (11), STELADONE (7) among others with majority of the farmers (32) spraying once a week. Water sources for use were tap (piped) water (8), Borehole (54), community dams (3), river water (4) and harvested rain water (1). Majority of farmers (43) used manual methods of milking while 29 farmers used automated machines. Nakuru had highest number of lactating cattle (1422) and milk production (22,480 litres), followed by Kajiado (247) with low milk production (371 litres) compared to production Kilifi production (1470 litres) herd (150). Milk was sold to KCC, Brookside and vendors with farmers adding little value (Yoghurt and Mala). In conclusion, extensive use of chemicals may accumulate in the ecosystem thus a public health problem with little productivity. Data forms basis for further research and policy formulation on acaricides use. Analysis of hydro-chemical parameters and acaricides in the water source is recommended to ascertain its suitability for Agricultural and domestic use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Diversity of the Agro-Morphological Traits of Torch Ginger (Etlingera elatior) Germplasm in Malaysia

Nor Asiah Ismail, M. Y. Rafii, T. M. M. Mahmud, M. M. Hanafi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 37-57
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i430196

Aims: The main objective of this study is to quantify the genetic variability and relationship among the quantitative traits of the torch ginger germplasm collected across Peninsular Malaysia.

Study design:  Initially, the experimental design was randomized complete block design (RCBD) but there were unequal number of replications due to limited planting materials.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Research Station, Jerangau, Terengganu, Malaysia on latitude 04°57.704’N and longitude 103°11.007’E. Data on agro-morphological characterization were collected for three years from June 2010 until May 2013.

Methodology: A total of 57 torch ginger accessions were collected from various wild/ cultivated sources from seven states of Peninsular Malaysia namely Terengganu (19), Perak (15), Kedah (7), Johor (6), Pahang (5), Kelantan (3) and Melaka (2). The collection was planted in 2009 and maintained as living collection. At three months old torch ginger plantlets were transplanted into 20 cm × 20 cm × 20 cm holes spaced at 100 cm diameter of culvert. The spacing of culvert between rows and within rows were 2 m respectively. Initially, the experimental design was randomized complete block design (RCBD) but there were unequal number of replications due to limited planting materials. Data on agro-morphological characterization were collected for three years from June 2010 until May 2013. All the 57 accessions were characterized according to descriptors list of genera under Zingiberaceae family with some modifications. A total of 6 qualitative and 16 quantitative descriptors were used. The mean values of each quantitative trait data were computed and subjected to statistical analysis to assess the amount of genetic variation using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA was using PROC GLM of SAS 9.4 software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Genotypic coefficients of variation and error variance were estimated using PROC VARCOMP method Type I of SAS 9.4 software. Phenotypic coefficients of variation, heritability and genetic advance were calculated. Pearson correlation coefficient was determined using SAS 9.4 for comparing the relationship among the different traits. The morphological traits were analyzed by numerical taxonomic methods via cluster analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) which was done using NTSYS-PC Version 2.1. PCA based on 16 quantitative and six qualitative traits was performed to determine the genetic variation in the torch ginger accessions. The cluster and PCA were performed to reveal clustering and grouping pattern of torch ginger accessions. Euclidean distance coefficients were estimated for all pairs of accessions, which was then used to present cluster analysis.

Results: Analysis of variance indicated that highly significant variation exists among the 57 accessions for most of the traits. The 57 accessions of torch ginger showed high variability for both qualitative and quantitative traits. Among the quantitative traits, the highest CV was observed from number of spikes with the value of 44.25%. The genetic coefficient of variation for 16 morphological traits ranged from 9.76 to 45.86%. Broad sense heritability estimates varied from low to high. Maximum estimates of broad sense heritability were recorded in bract length (80.16%), bud peduncle length (78.74%), number of leaves (75.66%), number of stems per clump (67.99%), inflorescence peduncle length (67.60%) and bud width (65.11%). The genetic advance (GA) in percent of mean was recorded from 11.82 to 67.97%. Besides that, positive correlation coefficient was obtained between some traits. Generally, the genotypes groups were related with morphological characteristics among the accessions.

Conclusion: Considering the distribution pattern, vegetative and yield performance of accessions, it is suggested that accessions from cluster VII (KAN022, KAN047 and KAN048) should be selected for future breeding program. These accessions possessed the highest peduncle length that could influence the yield in terms of bud size. Furthermore, the classification and divergence between torch ginger accessions analyzed in this study may assist in conserving plant materials both in-situ and ex-situ.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change and Fisheries: Perspectives from Small-Scale Fishing Community in Badagry, Lagos, Nigeria

O. J. Aderinola, G. O. Mekuleyi, V. Kusemiju, A. A. Adu, O. O. Babalola

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 58-69
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i430197

The present study focused on impact of climate change on livelihood of Ganyingbo fishing community in Badagry, from June to September, 2020. Data were collected through administration of 58 structured questionnaires to artisanal fishermen while test of significance of research hypotheses was conducted using chi-square and t-test at 95% confidence interval. The results showed that the fisher folks composed of 83% male and 17% female. The most common age group among fishermen was 30-39 years (27.58%) and 57% do not have other job apart from fishing. Majority (37.93%) of the fishermen did not attain beyond secondary school education while only 3.45% had tertiary education. Calculated coefficient of marketing efficiency indicated that 54.8% and 72.26% of their sales revenue were taken up by costs before and after the effect of climate change respectively. Total expenditure of fishermen increased by 24.9% while income decreased by 5.26%. The t-test analysis indicated significant (p<0.05) difference between the total cost associated with fishing in Ganyingbo before (N17850.0± 2015.22) and after (N22300.0 ± 6297.40) effect of the climate change. Fishermen (87.93%) believed that adopting coping strategies to mitigate the climate change is germane for artisanal fisheries systems. A significant (p<0.05) difference was observed (X2 = 30.56: 9.49) between expected and observed perspective of fishermen based on viability of artisanal fisheries in Ganyingbo community. As noted in this study, fishing business in Ganyingbo is still viable however more effective mitigation measures are required to ensure its sustainability.