Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of the Beneficial Microorganisms Bioformulations on the Soil Physicochemical Parameters and the Nutritional Profile of Abelmoschus Esculentus Cultivated in Cameroon

Zoa Parfait Alexis, . Fotso, Tene Tayo Paul Martial, Djocgoue Pierre-François

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i530198

Abelmoschus esculentus, a plant cultivated in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world, is highly appreciated for its various uses. Its culture encounters difficulties, particularly in Cameroon, due to soil infertility. In order to overcome this difficulty, the use of biological fertilizers in order to regenerate agricultural soils for more production is suggested. Three types of formulations were prepared after in vitro compatibilities tests, T1 (B. amyloliquefaciens and T. harzianum); T2 (B. velezensis and B. amyloliquefaciens) and T3 (B. velezensis and T. harzianum) with the aim of improving soil physicochemical; agromorphological and nutritional profile of okra. The plants were cultivated in 4.5 m² plots, arranged in complete randomized blocks design. ANOVA revealed significant differences between T1treatment and the other treatments and with the T0 control in plant height with the growth rate of 1.144cm/day, fruit length (11.53±0.49cm) and the average weight of fruits per treatment (1868.00±279.45g) at the significance level of P<0.05 (Tukey test). The productivity of treatment T1 per hectare (16.604±2.48t/ha) was highly significant compared to the other treatments and the control (8.53±1.49t/ha). Parameters such as disease resistance, leaf area and number of leaves were not significant between treatments but with the control. The values obtained with T1 treatment were high compared to the others. Regarding nutritional properties, the Na, K, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, carbohydrates and proteins contents were significantly increased compared to the control with contents values above the same okra variety. These different results may suggest the use of bioformulation with B. amyloliquefaciens and T. harzianum in order to improve soil fertility and to produce a sufficient quantity and quality of biofortified okra.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Growth Performance of Three Commercial Hybrid Chicken Varieties Using Grain Based Feeds

C. Obudulu, N. P. Udeh, J. J. Okeke, O. A. Okeke, K. P. Okafor, C. C. Egwuagu, M. Ogbozor

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i530199

In poultry, feed costs represent a major part of total production costs. Accordingly, improvement of feed conversion ratio; feed intake: weight gain should be a major objective in most breeding programmes. Growth performance of three commercial broiler hybrids in Nigeria were investigated using a total of 60 unsexed day old chicks consisting of 15 each of Rhode Island White, Plymouth Rock and Rhode Island Red; and 15 of the purebred, the Nigerian Southern light ecotype used as control. The breeds were maintained separately in wooden cages of dimension 120cm × 80cm × 40cm at stocking density of 15 birds per m2 and fed for six weeks using broiler starter feed for first four weeks and finisher feed for next two weeks. The broiler starter feed was composed of broiler concentrate (energy Keauka) 2950Kcal, crude protein 2.1%, crude fibre 4.0%, calcium 1.0%, Available phosphorus 0.48%, cysine 1.2% and methionine 0.5%. The finisher’s diet consisted of 1:1.8 mixtures of broiler concentrate and maize meal. No medication was provided during the study. The result showed Rhode Island White had highest maximum weight gain (2874.43% initial weight), Plymouth Rock (1053.14% initial weight) intermediate and Rhode Island Red (986.12% initial weight) lowest. The pure breed weight gain (441.50% initial weight) was lower than the hybrids. Average feed conversion ratio was highest for Rhode Island White (0.394±0.0047), intermediate for Plymouth Rock (0.373± 0.0051) and Rhode Island Red (0.366± 0.0048) next. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). The purebred had the lowest feed conversion ratio (0.346± 0.0047). Rhode Island Red had the lowest mortality (0%), Rhode Island White (6.67%) intermediate and Plymouth Rock next (20%). The purebred had the highest mortality (33.33%). The study showed Rhode Island White was the most economically viable breed due to its higher growth rate, feed conversion ratio and low mortality rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mariculture in Southern Central Region, Vietnam: Status and Orientation Toward Sustainable Development

Phan Minh-Thu, Huynh Minh Sang, Hua Thai An

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i530200

The development of aquaculture, especially in mariculture, contributes to satisfy the increasing demand for aquatic food, but it also faces serious socio-economic and environmental issues. This is also consistent with aquaculture in the Southern Central Region (SCR), Vietnam. The paper conducted to evaluate the mariculture status and activities by questionnaire interviews of 255 mariculture stakeholders (cages/rafts owners) and their challenges by in-depth interviews of 16 aquaculture managing officers at eight provinces in SCR, 2018-2019. The results showed an assessment of the current status of mariculture, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis, and orientation strategies of mariculture development. For a long time, the aquaculture area has not varied considerably, and mainly distributed in inland, coastal and off-coastal waters, almost it is not implemented in the open sea yet. Mariculture was also challenged by various concerned issues: various types of mariculture and species, small scale, outdated traditional technology, and labor force with fair practices in mariculture. Almost them are made the challenge for aquaculture expansion and implementation in open seas. Moreover, capital sources and credit access of stakeholders, and enterprise's investment are key factors to develop offshore mariculture. Based on the results of SWOT analysis, five strategies are proposed for sustainable development of mariculture in the SCR, as well as to meet the objectives of Vietnam's mariculture strategy. It is noted that when developing mariculture on an industrial scale to increase commercial products, the small- and medium-scale ones are vulnerable, so expansion and development of mariculture should be combined with the creation of job opportunities, reduction of poverty alleviation and economic growth and sustainability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Studies of Deer (Odocoileus virginianus, Mazama americana) in Southern Yucatán, Mexico

Montes-Perez Ruben, Lopez-Coba Ermilo, Pacheco-Sierra Gualberto, May-Cruz Christian, Sierra-Gomez Andrés III

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 38-51
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i530201

Aims: Estimate the population density of deer in the municipality of Tzucacab, Yucatán in the periods of 2003-2004, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, determine the use of the habitat by these populations and the sustainability of the deer harvest from the estimated population densities.

Study Design: A descriptive and vertical free-living deer population study was carried out in southern Yucatan, Mexico over a three-year period.

Methodology: The map of the municipality of Tuzcacab was zoned in quadrants of 36 km2, completing a total of 36 quadrants; Unrestricted random sampling was applied to select seven quadrants in the period from 2003 to 2004 and 18 in each annual period between 2007 and 2009. Population samplings were carried out by applying three population estimation methods: direct sighting in a linear transect of 5 km in length, count of tracks in transect except period 2003-2004 and faecal pellets group count in plots. The evaluation of the use of habitat was carried out using the Bonferroni intervals, from the data of faecal pellets count. The evaluation of the deer harvest was carried out using the sustainable harvest model.

Results: The population densities were different in each method, the density by the excreta count was 4.63 ± 2.49 deer / km2 in 2003-2004, 0.294 ± 0.198 deer / km2 in 2007-2008, and in the year 2008-2009 was 0.419 ± 0.0000085 deer / km2. Habitat use in 2007-08 and 2008-2009 was higher in the tropical forest, lower in agriculture and similar to that expected in secondary succession forest (acahual). The values of sustainable harvest, taking as a value the density per count of excreta in the plot because it showed the highest statistical precision, in the period 2003-04 it is sustainable, but in the period from 2007 to 2009 it is not sustainable.

Conclusion: The population densities of deer (O. virginianus and M. americana) in Tuzcacab by means of the excreta count method, have decreased significantly. The habitat use preference is the tropical forest. The deer harvest in the period from 2007 to 2009 is not sustainable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption of Conservation Agriculture in Eastern Kenya: Identified and Measured Indicators of the Sustainability of the C.A Practices

Sharon Chepkemboi Waswa, Lenah Mutindi Mulyungi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 52-62
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i530202

Conservation agriculture (CA) is fronted as the solution to sub Saharan Africa food insecurity problems in light of climate change. Sustainability of agricultural landscapes has become a primary issue for policy-makers and land managers at different hierarchical levels including farmers, advisors, policy-makers, and scientists as reflected in many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs focus on ending poverty, protecting the planet, and ensuring prosperity for all, as part of the new sustainable development agenda initiated in 2015 to precede the Millennium development goals. With the recognition that Sustainability assessment needs to move from global and regional scale to local scales to enable people measure their progress towards sustainability, a conceptual model guides the sustainability assessment approach adopted for this study. The AESIS framework is adopted for indicator selection and representation. This study sought to evaluate the agro-environmental and socio economic sustainability of Conservation Agriculture as practiced in Kenya. Results show that 8 out of 24 indicators performances are rated as best, 5 indicators performances are rated as good, 4 indicators performances are rated as moderate while 7 indicators performances are rated as either unacceptable or limited forming a basis for the points of improvement in agro-ecosystems under conservation agriculture.