Open Access Opinion Article
The current crisis in Indian agriculture warrants solutions, but in consultation with farmers and related institutions; unlike the imposition of Farming Reforming Bills passed by the Indian Government on 20-22 September 2020. The three recent Indian Government’s Farming Reform Acts i.e. Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce; Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act; and Essential Commodities Act, have caused frustration and agitation among millions of farmers, farm-workers, and the general public since September 2020. The agitation continues to date and has expanded to almost every state and territory. The government has failed to understand the fundamental farmers’ perspective—agriculture is their heritage, not a business. The main reason for the design of these Acts is that policymakers within the government do not understand the true value of agricultural economy in villages which are the foundation of India, and instead prefer to liaise with corporations for business gains while compromising the needs of millions of people. This article provides a critical analysis of the current agricultural situation in India.
Open Access Original Research Article
Colocasia esculenta (taro), Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Ananas cosmosus (pineapple), Musa paradisiaca (plantain), and Anacardium occidentale (cashew) are economically important horticultural crops in West Africa, which are widely grown across the region under rain fed conditions. They are very important set of crops that provides income for the individuals involved with it and thus contributing to economy of West African nation’s. For Predicting the potential future habitat suitability of these crops under different climate scenarios holds significance for their continuous cultivation and effective management. The Maxent model was used in this study to predict habitat suitability of these crops under current and future climatic conditions based on two representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for the years 2050s and 2070s. The data used were the occurrence records from Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and WorldClim’s bioclimatic environmental predictor variables. The findings of this experiment showed that the habitat suitability of some crop species will =decrease and in some it will increase. Suitable habitat was predicted to decrease within the semi-arid and arid areas of the region, especially on those countries in northern part which includes Niger, Mali and Burkina Faso, as early as by 2070s. For species like okra, sweet potato and taro, there will be further decline as predicted under the higher emission scenario of RCP 8.5. The suitable habitat for cashew remained stable for future in all the models and scenarios used. This work provides the first theoretical guidance for possible future cultivation of these horticultural crops in the West Africa.
Open Access Original Research Article
A survey of some refuse dumpsites in Ifite, Awka, Anambra, Nigeria State were carried out for 5 weeks to determine the arthropod vectors associated with those refuse dumps and their relative abundance per site and species diversity. Five refuse dumpsites were randomly selected based on their composition and human activities within the environment. The sampled sites are Commissioners Quarters (site A), Second Market (site B), Miracle Junction (site C), Star-Lodge Junction (site D) and Wintess Hotel (site E). Fourteen species of arthropods were collected in eight orders and eleven families namely; Muscidae, Culicidae, Blattidae, Calliphoridae, Formicidae, Elateridae, Xystodesmidae, Polydesmidae, Acrididae, Lygaeidae and Selonopidae. The most abundant vector species encountered in all five study sites was Musca domestica, the dominant species, followed by Aedes. spp., and P. americana which occurred in all study sites except site A. Site A, M. domestica 12 (38.71%), followed by A. aegypti 6 (19.35%), site B, M. domestica 15 (25.42%), followed by A. aegypti 12 (20.34%) and P. Americana 10 (16.95%), site C, M. domestica 17 (28.89%), followed by A. aegypti 7 (15.56%) and P. Americana 5 (11.11%), site D, M. domestica 17 (27.42%), followed by A. aegypti 11 (17.74%) and P. americana 7 (11.29%), site E, M. domestica 30 (32.26%), followed by A. spp.,17 (18.28%) and P. Americana 16 (17.20%).The abundance of these vectors suggests the prevalence of arthropod vector borne disease in Ifite, Awka environment. Proper disposal of refuse dumps and public enlightenment on the dangers of indiscriminate dumping of refuse to the general public is highly recommended to avert health and environmental problems associated with these arthropod vectors.