Open Access Short Research Article

Perceptions, Husbandry and Disease Management Practices amongst Cattle Owners of Mwandi District, Zambia

Ngonda Saasa, Joyce Siwila, Ethel M’kandawire, Walter Muleya, Milton Mwenda, King Shimumbo Nalubamba

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 59-68
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2015/17712

A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Mwandi district of Western province of Zambia. The objective was to obtain preliminary data on cattle owner perceptions and awareness of livestock husbandry practices and disease management due to lack of information on livestock activities in the area. The study showed that cattle were the main livestock kept (60%), mainly of the indigenous local Barotse breed. The study further showed that public veterinary officials were the main source of advice on animal health (97%, 29/30 respondents vs. 3%, 1/30 for family members), and choice of drugs (100%) for the treatment of sick animals. All the cattle owners (30/30) reported having seen ticks on the cattle. Foot and mouth disease (27/30), contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (26/30) and anaplasmosis (22/30) were reported to be the most important cattle diseases. Surprisingly, none of the cattle owners responded to questions on theileriosis (corridor disease); nor did they report presence of trypanosomosis despite all of them (30/30) using antitrypanocides. The study further showed that oxytetracycline (30/30), Diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) (29/30), penicillin (29/30), and albendazole (28/30) were the most commonly used drugs. In addition to these drugs, local plants/herbs were also used. Inadequate water, stock theft and inaccessible veterinary services were among the challenges. Although farmers were familiar with many factors affecting their cattle, there was apparent lack of agreement between what the farmers knew and their management practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of the Two-early-flowering-time Genes, Ef1 and m-Ef1, Founded in Low Latitude were Reexamined in One of the Origins of Donor Parent under Fluctuating Field Environments as to Earliness Effect and Fitness

Youki Itoh

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 43-52
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2015/18360

Aims: Early flowering 1 (Ef1) and modifier of Early flowering 1 (m-Ef1) genes were firstly detected in the cultivars fitted to northern margins of rice cultivation. Hence, it has been inferred that the genes might be essential for adaptation to the regions. However, the genes have been identified in low latitudes and the effects on earliness and fitness in the origins have not been tested. To know genetic shift in response to climatic change, the present study was performed as to earliness effect and fitness.
Study Design: The six near-isogenic lines (NILs) associated with Ef1 and m-Ef1 genes and the recurrent parent were used. In each genotype, twelve plants were divided into two replicates in a paddy field. In each replicate, genotypes were placed at random.
Place and Duration of Study: The place of this study was National Agricultural Research Center in Sapporo (43 °N) in Japan. Duration of the study was summer season between year 2003 (cool summer) and 2004 (warm summer).
Methodology: In each plant, flowering time was recorded every day and days to flowering from germination to (DF) were calculated. Earliness effect of a plant of a NIL was defined as subtraction of DF of a NIL from that of the recurrent parent in same ID of same replicate. After harvest, maximum fertility of a panicle (Fmax), minimum fertility of a panicle (Fmin), total number of panicles with more than a fertile grain (Effective panicle number: EPN) and total number of panicles (TNP) were recorded in each plant. Fitness in a plant was conventionally estimated from the formulation, 1/2 (Fmax + Fmin) x (EPN / TNP).
Results: Compared with the previous study, which evaluated the effect of Ef1 and m-Ef1 genes in low latitude, effect of epistasis between Ef1 and m-Ef1 on earliness qualitatively changed between low and high latitudes. Furthermore, it was estimated that one of the epistasis might accelerate flowering time in response to low temperatures. At phenotype level, Individuals with earlier flowering time tended to show higher fitness. However, at genotype level, the tendency was broken in low-temperature year. As a result, correlation of fitness between two years showed no significance.
Conclusion: Epistasis-by-environment interaction might reveal significant role in earliness effects between latitude and between years. In addition, even in the case that earliness effects were preserved among genotypes between years, there is a possibility that fitness might not always be conserved under fluctuating field conditions in the northern limit of rice cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Study on Some of Ecological Specifications of Gentiana olivieri a Medicinal Species in Rangelands of Fars Province, Iran

Damoun Razmjoue, Zahra Zarei

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 69-78
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2015/18524

According to the importance of medicinal plants and the necessity of comprehensive understanding them for exploitaion; some ecological aspects of Gentiana olivieri plant that is from Gentianaceae family were reviewed. This study was done in 5 counties that were as the habitat of this plant. In first stage in each site physiognomy units were separated, and in each unit, one reagent zone was specified; and in each site, by random systematic method, 4 transect with 100 m length and along each of transect, 5 plots 2×2 were selected. And the data related to vegetation and soil were gathered. The obtained results showed that the factors such as: vegetation percent, density, abundance and the height of plant in different sites are affected by the factors related to soil. As the areas that had the most percent of sand and minimum percent silt, clay and EC had the minimum vegetation percent; and the areas having the most amount of K,OC and EC, had the most plant height and the areas having the maximum clay amount and pH had the minimum density and abundance and plant height. Meanwhile, the habitats of this plant were from 1600 to 2000 m from sea level and were as the relatively hillside lands with the slop less that 20 percent and in all geographical directions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-monitoring of Mangroves Sediments and Tissues for Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Mangrove Forest of Cross River Estuary

E. A. B. Edu, O. U. Udensi, M. O. Ononyume

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 79-87
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2015/15801

Aims: The need to periodically monitor the mangroves of heavy metals pollution should not be overemphasized given the high premium placed on this ecosystem. The present study was aimed at evaluating mangrove sediments and tissues for heavy metals accumulation in the different tidal levels, which will be an indicator for pollution.
Methodology: Ten random samples of composite surface sediments (0-5 cm) were collected from low, mid and high tidal levels using a modified Van Veen (0.1 m2) grab sampler. Also samples of senescent leaves, barks and roots of randomly selected ten individual plants of Nypa fruticans (low tide), Rhizophora racemosa (mid tide) and Avicennia africana (high tide) were also collected for heavy metal analyses during the year 2011.
Results: Our results showed that there were significant variations (P < 0.05) in heavy metals deposition across the tidal levels. In the mangrove sediments, iron (Fe) content (415.8 mg/g dry weight) was highest in the high tidal level where A. africiana was predominantly sampled while N. fruticans (low tide) had the lowest deposition of the metal (304.4 mg/g dry weight). The accumulation of heavy metals in the mangrove tissues took the general trend of root > bark > leaves, the mangrove notwithstanding. It was also observed that cadmium deposition in sediments was comparatively higher than RSV indicating possible cadmium pollution.
Conclusion: Generally, accumulation of heavy metals in the mangrove forest of Cross River estuary was within permissible limits. Although the concentrations obtained for the heavy metals studied are generally below documented toxic levels, however, the increasing level of urbanization and industrialization in Calabar municipality and its environs calls for continuous vigilance, surveillance and monitoring of this sensitive and all important ecosystem to protect and ensure that heavy metal pollution is minimal.

Open Access Review Article

The Role of Trees in True Development

O. E. Unanaonwi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 53-58
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2015/14865

Aims: This review article discusses the importance of trees in development and highlights how development activities such as road construction, building of housing estates, industries, airports and agriculture led to forest trees depletion, which in effect negates sustainable development. Trees have been the biological tool that drives development and will continue to remain so. However, some of our developmental activities turn to hinder future development. Continuous destruction of forest or urban trees for developmental purposes is only a short-term development. Sustainable development makes way for future generation to share and enjoy from the present benefits. The consequence of indiscriminate removal of trees from our environment today will arise tomorrow if not checked. Important global bodies like the United Nations Organization are considering that trees are global heritage and a very significant factor about the world of well-being. They plan and execute development programmes with consideration for tree preservation and sustenance.
Conclusion: There can be no true development whether human, structural and economic without the important roles of trees. Trees should be accorded a high priority in all aspects of development planning and programmes.