Although screening large numbers of wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance under controlled elevated salinity levels in the greenhouse is useful, the final screening in the field at different locations, where soils are naturally affected with salt and other uncontrolled factors in soil and climate interact with salinity, is a must before deciding the most suitable genotype for each location. In the present study, 117 bread wheat doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross Sakha 8 X Line 25, along with their parents and the two check cultivars Sakha 93 and Sids 1 were screened for salinity tolerance under field conditions at three locations and two seasons, i.e. Serw (2011/12), Sakha (2011/12), Sakha (2013/14) and Gemmeiza (2013/14), where ECe was 9.4, 5.7, 5.5 and 2.4 dSm-1, respectively and irrigation water ECw was 0.46 - 0.60 dSm-1. The genotypes were classified into salt tolerant, moderately tolerant, sensitive and very sensitive based on grain yield/ plant. The rank of tolerant genotypes differed from one location to another and from season to season. The ten most tolerant DH lines across all environments were No.19, 44 , 65 , 33 , 24 , 2 , 21 , 98 61 and 99. The best DH line out-yielded the best check by 40.6% at Serw 11/12 (L40), 107.8% at Sakha 2011/12 (L16), 10.2% at Sakha 2013/14 (L2), 28.5% at Gemmeiza 2013/14 (L71) and 48.7% across the four environments (L19).
Dumpsites are gradually turning into farm land with the belief that they must have accumulated necessary nutrient element required for plant growth and thus making some farmers to use refuse dumpsite material for composting not minding the type of waste that are involved and what they are actually made up off. This study therefore investigated the concentrations of heavy metals in selected dumpsite soils and various forms to determine their mobility with the view to crystallize their extent of contamination to the soil when used for farming activities. Two dumpsites (Bodija dumpsite (BD) and Olukunle dumpsite (OD) were purposively selected from Ibadan South Western Nigeria based or different waste distributions at the depth of 0-20 cm. The metals investigated include: Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Cr and Ni. Sequential extraction method was used to assess the redistribution of heavy metals from which total heavy metals were earlier determined by acid digestion with aqua regia solution. Treatments were laid out in a completely randomized design with four replicates. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and T-test. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of total HM were 100.9, 48.9, 57.8, 16.6, 49,022.0 and 3,627.3 for As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively with coefficient of variance ranging from 1.31% for Ni to 141.2% for Pb. There was no significant difference (t=1.70; p>0.05) in metal concentration in both BD and OLD soil.
The residual fraction was the most predominant in the soils with the exception of Pb and Zn. The average metal concentration over soil samples were 307.6, 2,390.8, 1,666.8 and 4,448.8 for the exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable and residual fractions respectively. Only Zn had an appreciable amount (54.3%) associated with the exchangeable fractions while the oxidizable fraction was highest for Pb (79.1%) in soil BD and Zn (78.4%) in soil OD. It is therefore paramount to create awareness on the health hazard inherent in planting on refuse dumpsite soil without ascertaining its heavy metal status because of the possibility of metal uptake in the edible parts of crops. This could be detrimental to human health and the ecosystem at large.
Pastoralism is the most traditional of ruminant livestock production systems in which extensive movement of the animals in search of pastures and water is its salient feature. Whereas the system is adapted to exploit the dry, arid climatic zone, it often overlaps into wetter, agricultural land, occasionally ending up into violent conflicts. Ranching is practically the intensive form of pastoralism but it has a weakness of being seen as antisocial and needing high initial capital. Whatever other truly improved system of exploiting the pastoral agro-ecosystem, it seems it seldom can indict sedentarized tendencies and rarely can it be less intensive than ranching. This paper argues that the mobility survival strategy of pastoralism does not solve the problem the system itself creates. The paper further argues that because it is a livelihood system pastoralism will continue to thrive but so long as it cannot contain the internal pressures within itself and in presence of various external pressures, the system is destined to disintegrate as well as is destined to self-destruction. With the urgency to satisfy ever increasing global food needs, extensive practices such as nomadic pastoralism will continue to diminish at least in the peripheries of crop cultivation.
Aims: The aim of this work is to identify and evaluate the impacts related to the traced of high voltage on the flora of Agboville in order to put forward measures of attenuation or correctives.
Study Design: The vegetations were delimited into small squares plots or pieces. These small squares plots were distributed in all the flora of the study.
Place and Duration of Study: This work relates to the identification and the evaluation of the negative impacts of the layout of the line of high voltage on the flora of the study zone. It was conducted in Agboville, a locality in the south of Côte d'Ivoire, during July to September 2013
Methodology: The itinerant inventory and the method of "quadrat" were associated during floristic inventories.
Results: The results showed that the flora is approximately rich 81 species. However, it is little diversified and more homogeneous. The destruction of the woody flora (DFL), the destruction of the floristic potential of regeneration (DPE), the evolution of floristic diversity (EDF) and the aspect of vegetation (EPV) were the major average impacts during the study, the exploitation phase and at the end of the project. These impacts, brought out all along the phases of the project contributed to weaken the flora of the site and stated it to the risks of the biological, ecological and climatic imbalances.
Desertification is a serious socio-economic and environmental disaster that affecting many parts of the world. From eco-geographical view desertification could be defined as decrease in land surface phenology (LSP) caused by biotic and a biotic factors. These factors caused several changes in different geographical locations of the earth planet surface, specifically north and south of desert boundary reported by Harisson and Jakson  in Sudan. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible factors related with desertification cause or behind this phenomenon in Sudan. The specific objective is to diagnose the role of biotics and a biotics factors in causing desertification so that recommendation remedy will be given. Using eco-geographical analysis the study revealed that the area in north desert boundary predicted in previous study by Eltoum and Dafalla  as risk areas was converted in to desert like condition. These changes are continuing and moving south as discovered by Stebbing  and suggested by Lampery  and Salih . The study concluded that slow onset complex desertification disaster creeping to Sudan. Populations of Sudan may be disappearing within the next 50 years. There for, an urgent need of immediate afforestation program is present.