Open Access Original Research Article

The Utilization of Vermicomposting Outputs in Ecology Soilless Culture of Lettuce

M. A. Abul-Soud, M. S. A. Emam, A. M. H. Hawash, M. H. Mohammed, Z. Y. Maharik

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/20008

The increase demands for food security, the expected future of climate change impacts, environmental concerns, water shortage and the need for recycling different organic wastes and mitigate their CO2emission were the driving forces for developing the use of vermicomposting outputs and ecology soilless culture. Two experiments were carried out during autumn seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013 at Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Giza, Egypt under net house. First study investigated the ability of vermicomposting outputs as substrate and organic nutrient solution. Vermicompost mixed with perlite, vermiculite and sand (30: 70% v/v) compared to peat moss + perlite (50: 50% v/v) combined with different sources of nutrient solutions (vermi-tea, vermi-liquid and chemical solution) on the yield of lettuce. Study the effect of vermicompost mixed with perlite in different proportions of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (v/v) compared to peat moss: perlite combined with different sources of nutrient solution (vermi-tea, compost-tea and chemical) on lettuce yield take a place in second study.Iceberg lettuce type cv. Robinson F1 hybrid was cultivated in both two experiments in split plot design with three replicates.

Data revealed that using vermicompost as a substrate combined with different substrates recorded the highest values of the physical properties of head lettuce during the two successive seasons compared to peat moss + perlite. Vermicompost + sand followed by vermicompost + perlite recorded the highest results of the physical properties of head lettuce. Otherwise, obtained results of the second experiment illustrated that increasing the vermicompost rate decreased the physical properties of head lettuce. The proportion of vermicompost + perlite (1: 3 v/v) gave the highest records of the physical properties of head lettuce compared to the control. The vermi-liquid and vermi-tea gave positive effects on the physical properties of head lettuce in the first and second study respectively. The chemical nutrient solution recorded the highest N (%) content in both experiments.

The study supported the use of vermicompost and vermi-liquid instead of peat moss and chemical nutrient solution in ecology soilless production of lettuce plants. The vermicomposting could be used for recycling the organic urban wastes to produce input materials of soilless, green roof and ecology culture besides mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG's) emission.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnosis of Soil Fertility and Nutritional Status and Characterization of Olive Orchard in Central Morocco

Karima Bouhafa, Lhoussaine Moughli, Amal Hadiddou, Khadija Bouchoufi, Abdelkader Sdouq

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/20016

This study was conducted in 2009/2010 with 58 olive orchards randomly selected at the Sais region. The main objectives of this work are: i) Characterization of olive orchard ii) Determining the soil fertility levels and the assessment of nutritional status of these olive orchards. Composite soil samples from two depths (0-30 cm and 30-60 cm) and composite leaf samples were collected during the December/January period. Surveys were conducted on these orchards to collect data for characterization and analysis of different fertilization modes adopted in relation to olive yield. More than half of the surveyed groves (57%) are conducted in rain fed conditions. The surveys have revealed shortcomings as regards fertilization practices of olive cultivation. Indeed, approximately 48.3% of the farmers surveyed provide no fertilizer for their olive trees. The laboratory analyzes of soil and leaf samples collected in these orchards have confirmed this. The study showed no correlation between the olive yield and soil fertility parameters and between the olive yield and the olive leaf parameters. The relationship between the olive nutrition parameters and the soil fertility parameters, at the 0-30 cm horizon, showed that olive leaf parameters were not linked to those of soil fertility. However, much of the leaf nitrogen content (about half) has been explained by the soil nitrate content in irrigated orchards. The determination of the olive tree fertilization standards is a necessary step for a rational management of fertilizers for the olive trees. These standards should be developed through field trials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Solid Waste Slurry from Biogas Plant on Soil Parameters and Yield of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

Md. Rabiul Islam, Md. Nur Hossain, Md. Fakruddin, Khusnade Rabbi, Md. Abdul Baten

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/20297

Aims: To determine the effect of Solid Waste (MSW) slurry from biogas plant on soil micro-parameters and yield of spinach.

Study Design: A completely randomized design was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the field laboratory of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh during Rabi-1 season (October-December, 2012).

Methodology: Different combination of MSW and regular fertilizer was applied to experimental fields and effect of MSW on soil micro-parameters and yield of spinach was determined.

Results: Application of MSW slurry showed significant effect on soil moisture, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium and available sulphur in post plant soil except soil pH over control. For ensuring of organic farming, improving soil parameters and soil health, 20 ton/ha slurry + 50% of the recommended fertilizer dose was found the best. Application of MSW slurry had significant positive effect on plant height, leaves per plant and individual plant weight over control. Rate of photosynthesis did not vary significantly due to the application of MSW slurry.

Conclusion: MSW slurry showed a positive impact on growth and yield contributing characters of spinach and soil microenvironment which help improving the fertility status of soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Species Composition and Structure of Isoberlinia Woodland of Shika, Zaria Nigeria

H. M. Bello, A. O. Musa

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/20494

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of farming activities on Isoberlinia woodland. This was achieved by assessing their composition and structural characteristics in two plots, 30 m x 30 m each, the plots were farming plot and a rested plot of minimum anthropogenic impacts (here called disturbed and undisturbed plot respectively). Data were collected from each plot, all woody species were identified and their height, diameter at breast height (dbh), basal area, volume, diversity and biomass were measured. In addition, herbaceous diversity and biomass were also determined. Dominance species were determined by the Importance Value Index (IVI). Soils were augured, collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters. A total of 71 species belonging to 36 families were identified. Shannon-wiener diversity index showed that the disturbed plot was 2.441 and equitability of 0.733 had higher diversity when compared to the undisturbed (2.331 and 0.685) respectively. These two plots were 66% similar in vegetal composition. Analysis of the importance value index revealed that the dominant species in the area was Isoberlinia doka. The total basal area and volume was very low at both plots. The woody biomass for the undisturbed was 0.015 ton/ha for the undisturbed and 0.001 ton/ha for the disturbed plot. The total herbaceous biomass for the undisturbed plot was 70.7 ton/ha and 49.7 ton/ha for the disturbed plot. The soils were characteristically alfisols and much degraded reflecting degrees of vegetal exploitation. The low woody volume and biomass though disturbing but not withstanding had high Isoberlina component hence, the woodland can still and better be called degraded Isoberlinia woodland.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Solid Waste Slurry from Biogas Plant on Soil Parameters and Yield of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

Md. Rabiul Islam, Md. Nur Hossain, Md. Fakruddin, Khusnade Rabbi, Md. Abdul Baten

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2016/v5i13712

Aims: To determine the effect of Solid Waste (MSW) slurry from biogas plant on soil micro-parameters and yield of spinach.

Study Design: A completely randomized design was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the field laboratory of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh during Rabi-1 season (October-December, 2012).

Methodology: Different combination of MSW and regular fertilizer was applied to experimental fields and effect of MSW on soil micro-parameters and yield of spinach was determined.

Results: Application of MSW slurry showed significant effect on soil moisture, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium and available sulphur in post plant soil except soil pH over control. For ensuring of organic farming, improving soil parameters and soil health, 20 ton/ha slurry + 50% of the recommended fertilizer dose was found the best. Application of MSW slurry had significant positive effect on plant height, leaves per plant and individual plant weight over control. Rate of photosynthesis did not vary significantly due to the application of MSW slurry.

Conclusion: MSW slurry showed a positive impact on growth and yield contributing characters of spinach and soil microenvironment which help improving the fertility status of soil.

Open Access Review Article

The Spread, Impact and Control of Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King and H. Robinson in Grassland Area

Muhammad Rusdy

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/16391

Chromolaena odorata is native to tropical America and has been reported as one of the world’s most invasive species in the humid tropics and subtropics. As an attempt to generate information useful for preventing and controlling the weed in grassland area, the spreads, impacts and controls of the weed are reviewed. Some attributes that contribute to its success as invader weed were described. Its impacts, both negative and positive on grassland ecosystem were presented. Possible solutions to prevent the spread of the weed and its control in grassland area were also discussed.