Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Soil Physico-chemical Properties on Agriculture: A Study in Tangail District, Bangladesh

M. Rahman, M. M. Mian

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/21565

Aims: The economic development of Bangladesh is mainly influenced by agriculture sector, but lacks of available information regarding soil characteristics hindering the process of appropriate agricultural practice. This study tries to examine the physico-chemical characteristics of soil in Tangail district, Bangladesh, and evaluate the scope of agriculture.

Place and Duration of Study: Entire soil sample was collected from three major zones (Bhuapur, Gopalpur and Tangail Sadar Upazilla) of Tangail district, Bangladesh during the period of September, 2013 to July, 2014.  

Methodology: Random quadrate methods were used to collect soil samples. Collected samples were dried at room temperature, mixed carefully, crushed and sieved by 20 mesh net and analyzed soil texture, bulk density, soil pH, organic matter, total N, available P, K, and S. Entire analysis was conducted twice and average value of results was considered for calculation.

Results: It is revealed that, the soil texture varied largely In the three study zones, Tangail Sadar soil is mainly sandy clay loam, Bhuapur and Gopalpur Upazilla are silt loam and loam texture respectively. The mean bulk density is lower in Tangail Sadar (0.093) and higher in Bhuapur (5.019) and Gopalpur (4.706), which indicate soil compactness. However the pH of the three study zones were 5.70, 6.22 and 6.28, which is suitable for some crop cultivation, but the entire study area lacks soil macronutrients.

Conclusion: Adequate fertilizers are required to cultivate crops in these zones. Beside chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer should also be used for retention of soil organic contents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Intensity of Infection of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Cavies from Menoua Division-West Region of Cameroon

Vincent K. Payne, Ndah Germaine, Fusi Ngwa, Cedric Yamssi, Leonelle Megwi, Fonteh A. Florence, Mpoame Mbida, Bilong Bilong C. Felix

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/20652

Background: Domestic cavies, commonly known as guinea pigs are more widely filling a niche in livestock production in West Africa, most especially in Cameroon. Cavies have been shown to play a vital role in the animal protein supply and income generation in rural areas in Cameroon. Despite this, there is a dearth of information concerning diseases and parasites of cavies in Cameroon. The aim of this study was therefore to have an inventory of gastrointestinal parasites of cavies in Menoua Division, West Region of Cameroon; and to characterize the infection rates.

Methods: Three hundred Cavies (171 females and 129 males) aged 1 week to 1 year old were examined from May 2013 to June 2014. A qualitative (double centrifugation flotation technique) and a quantitative (Mc Master Technique) coprologic analyses were used for the egg or oocyst count of gastrointestinal parasites.

Results: Of the total number of cavies examined, 237 showed positive with one or more gastro-intestinal parasites, giving an overall prevalence of 79.0%. Six genera of gastrointestinal nematodes: Spirocerca spp. (3.0%), Trichuris spp. (3.3%); Ascaris spp. (4%); Trichostrongylus spp. (10.3%); Strongyloides spp. (10.7%); Paraspidodera sp. (31.0%) and one species of Protozoa represented by Eimeria spp. (48.7%) were identified. There was a significant difference in prevalence (P< 0.05) for Eimeria spp, Strongyloides spp and Paraspidodera sp based on locality while with respect to age group, only Paraspidodera spp. and Eimeriaspp. showed significant difference in prevalence (P< 0.05). As concerns sex of cavies, Ascaris spp was significantly more prevalent in females than in males.

Conclusion: The overall high prevalence recorded in this study clearly indicates the need for strategic parasite control in cavies with particular attention focused on middle to old aged cavies which showed significantly higher prevalence and parasitic load for most of the gastrointestinal infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drainage Basin Morphometric Parameters of River Lamurde: Implication for Hydrologic and Geomorphic Processes

E. D. Oruonye, B. B. Ezekiel, H. G. Atiku, E. Baba, N. I. Musa

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/22149

This study has examined the drainage basin morphometric parameters of River Lamurde and its implication on hydrologic and geomorphic processes. Various morphometric parameters of the drainage basin were calculated based on literatures. Lamurde basin is a fourth stream order with dendritic pattern of drainage. The results of the study indicated that the drainage basin area is 553.9 km2, basin perimeter 197.5 km, form factor 0.19, circulatory ratio 0.5 and drainage texture is 03. The stream frequency of the study area is 0.11 stream segments per square kilometer, drainage density (Dd) is 0.389 km/km2, bifurcation ratio 3.85 and length of overland flow is 0.13 km. The drainage density, bifurcation ratio and circulatory ratio values indicate that the basin has a gentle slope, more elongated and highly permeable bedrock. The relief ratio of the basin is characterized by less resistant rocks. Both values of stream frequency and drainage density show that Lamurde basin has a low relief and by implication has a low response to surface runoff. This basin shape parameters indicates that the basin has a flatter peak of flow for longer duration. The morphometric parameters studied using GIS has helped us to understand various terrain characteristics such as the nature of the bedrock, infiltration capacity, runoff etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Atrazine on Germination and Growth Performance of Water Yam (Dioscorea alata)

O. S. Olabode Olabode, A. O. Sangodele Sangodele, F. A. Akinpelu

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/19781

Effect of rates of application of atrazine on germination and growth performance of water yam minisetts was investigated at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. The treatments in the field experiment were four (4) rates of atrazine i.e 100%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of the recommended dosage rate of 2.5 kg active ingredient/ha or 5litres/ha. A plot to which no herbicides was applied served as the control (0%). The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Result showed that though yam minisetts emergence was not hampered by the rates of application of atrazine, the growth parameters of the yam minisetts were significantly (p= 0.05) affected at early stage. Yam minisetts vine length and vine thickness were significantly (p=0.05) higher at 50% treatments compared to other treatments and control. Rates of application of atrazine however, did not affect the number of leaves of yam minisetts. The rates of application of atrazine did not significantly (p=0.05) affect the yield parameters of yam minisetts, though the heaviest weight was produced under 25% treatments. Similarly, the rates of application of atrazine were similar in their effect on weed control and were better than the control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation and Nutrient Quality of Toasted Flamboyant Seed (Delonix regia) Meal in the Diet of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings

Gabriel Gana Bake, Ibrahim Yusuf, Suleiman Oiza Eku Sadiku

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/21687

56 days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of toasted Delonix regia seed meal (TDRSM) in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings with respect to their growth performance, feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, and body composition. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of toasted Delonix regia meal and were designated as D1 (0% inclusion), D2 (10% inclusion), D3 (20% inclusion), and D4 (30% inclusion) in a completely randomized design. Fifteen net hapa (0.5x0.5x1 m) were suspended in two outdoor concrete ponds with the aid of kuralon twine tied to plastic poles, the concrete ponds were filled to 5/6 of its volume (40 m3) with filtered and dechlorinated tap water. Each treatment had three replicates with 20 fish were accommodated in each hapa (mean initial body weight (1.02±0.01 g) per fish. Water temperature and other water quality parameters were monitored daily. The result of the study showed that there was no significant differences (P>0.05) in the survival rate, However D3 gave the best value in all the growth parameters values measured and was significantly different from others while D4 gave the lowest value but was not significantly different from D1. Except for D3 which was significantly higher in all the nutrient utilization values measured however was no significant difference between D1, D2 and D4. Proximate composition results revealed that increase in inclusion of TDRM led to an increase in the carcass lipid content and a decrease in moisture contents of the fish fed experimental diet. This result indicated, that inclusion of toasted Delonix regia meal at 20% in the diet of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings improves the nutritive value for fish, hence can serve as alternative ingredients in the fish feed production.