Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Morpho-chemical Characteristics and Yield Potential of Five Local Rice Cultivars

Md. Sariful Islam, Bikash Chandra Sarker Sarker, K. M. Manirul Islam, Shah Md. Shakil Ahmed, Najim Uddin

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/21750

Aims: To study morpho-chemical, yield and yield contributing characteristics of five local rice cultivars viz. Red Swarna, Jota pari, Pariza, Sugandhi and ShaitaBoro.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: A field experiment was conducted at the farm laboratory of Agricultural Chemistry Department, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh during the period from February to May, 2014.

Methodology: The total experimental area was divided into 3 blocks. Each block was then subdivided into 5 plots. The plot unit area was 2 m x 2 m. The replications were separated from one another by one meter border. The border between the individual plot was 0.5 m. All the intercultural operations were done as when necessary. Data on different characteristics were collected at different growth stages.

Results: Results revealed that morphological, physiological; yield and yield attributes were significantly different among the cultivars studied. The Sugandhi produced higher number of grains per panicle and bolder grains which resulted higher grain yield. Further, Sugandhi showed superiority in yield contributing characteristics: total tillers number, filled grain per panicle over other local cultivars and it also produced higher grain yield (4.86 t per ha).

Conclusion: It is revealed that Sugandhi had the higher yielding ability than those of other local cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction of Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Agricultural Soils Using Artificial Neural Network and c#

M. A. Al-Sulaiman, A. M. Aboukarima

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/21622

Aims: The objective of this study was to develop an artificial neural network model and interactive application using C# application to predict unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil.

Study Design: The actual measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil were obtained using the Mini Disk Infiltrometer (Decagon Devices, Inc.).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in laboratory located in Community College, Huraimla, Shaqra University, Saudi Arabia during March-April 2015.

Methodology: The experiments were conducted using water having electric conductivity of 2.26 dS/m and sodium adsorption ratio of 4.8. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of different soil textures (sand, sandy loam, loam and loamy sand) was determined at suction of -6 cm using Mini Disk Infiltrometer. The soil samples were taken from depth of 0-20 cm and repacked in a plastic 1000 cm3 container.

Results: The predicted unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soils compared favorably with the actual measurements in testing stage, however, mean relative error was 4.184% and coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.9979. In general, artificial neural network model gave considerable results but more data is still necessary. The main equations for C# application were obtained from the trained artificial neural network model. 

Conclusion: It could be concluded that the developed interactive application is recommended for estimating unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of agricultural soils within the range of the studied variables to provide data for water management in Saudi Arabia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glyphosate Influence on the Soil Microorganism Sensibility, Physiological Parameters of the Plant, Isoflavones and Residues in the Seeds and Soil

G. M. B. Bohm, L. Amarante, E. M. Bohm, C. V. Rombaldi, M. I. Genovese

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/22186

The use of Glyphosate herbicide is the best way to control weed growing when cultivating genetically modified soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] resistant to glyphosate (N-phosphono-methyl-glycine) (GR). However, there have been doubts about the safety of this herbicide use concerning its effects on the plant, quality of grains and on the soil cultivated. Hence, the present study aimed at evaluating the effects of weed management two soybean cultivars (GR) and its conventional isogenic genotype with the use of different doses of glyphosate on soil processes and microorganisms, physiology and metabolism of the plant along with possible contamination of soil and seed by herbicide residues. For this purpose, two soybean genotypes, one GR BRS 243 RR and a conventional (isogenic genotype) were grown under different weed control methods: hand weeding and glyphosate herbicide application. The study was performed in Rio Grande do Sul State, during the crop seasons of 2008 to 2009, 2009 to 2010, 2010 to 2011 and 2011 to 2012, with evaluations of soil microbial biomass and respiration, chlorophyll, nitrogen, ureides, nitrates, carotenoid, isoflavone content in seeds, and glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) residues in seeds and soil. The use of glyphosate positively affected the microbial biomass, basal respiration and seeds yield. On the other hand, the chlorophyll, nitrogen, ureides, nitrates, carotenoid, and isoflavone contents in seeds were unaffected by the treatment. Even though we used the recommended application doses, the glyphosate residues in the seeds were above the levels permitted by the Brazilian law. Also, AMPA residues were detected in the soil and the seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Growth Performance of Solanum nigrum L

Ayeni Modupe Janet, Ademiluyi Benson Oluwafemi, Shittu Rukayat Abiodun

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2016/v5i43906

Pot experiments were conducted to assess the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth of Solanum nigrum L. The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the Department of Plant Science, Ekiti State University Ado- Ekiti Nigeria (7°40’N and 5°15'E). Ado- Ekiti is in the rainforest zone of south- western Nigeria. The treatments included two organic fertilizers (cow dung and poultry manure) and Inorganic fertilizers (NPK and Urea). NPK and Urea (200 kgha-1) and 6t ha-1 of cow dung and poultry manure were used. The experimental design was a complete randomized design replicated six times. Results obtained showed that poultry manure produced the tallest plants (29.37 cm) at 6 weeks after transplanting and highest number of green leaves (76.25) at harvest (6 weeks after transplanting). These values were not significantly different from those of NPK fertilizer. Also, the leaf area at harvest, number of green leaves at harvest, fresh shoot biomass and relative growth rate were highest in poultry manure but similar to those of NPK applied pots. The results obtained were directly proportional to the stem girth as poultry manure recorded the highest values for stem girth. All the growth parameters observed showed that the control experiments gave the least performance. The results further revealed that poultry manure, NPK and cow dung gave comparable growth factors. It is suggested that poultry manure and cow dung (organic fertilizers) might be a good option in the cultivation of Solanum nigrum L. by resource poor farmers, who might not be able to afford the cost of inorganic fertilizers in cultivation of the vegetable. This research advocates for the use of naturally produced fertilizers as products from such is safe for human consumption. This can also reduce the harmful effect of inorganically produced crop on mankind.

Open Access Original Research Article

Macro Fungi Biodiversity at the Central and Northern Biosphere Reserved Areas of Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest Region of Bangladesh

M. I. Rumainul, F. M. Aminuzzaman

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jaeri/2016/v5i43928

Mushrooms are considered as macro fungi as well as seasonal fungi, which occupy diverse niches in natural forest ecosystem. It appears predominantly during rainy season, if temperature and moisture become favorable in that ecosystem. Investigation of diversity of macro fungi is gaining importance because of the disappearance due to the threat of habitat destruction. This investigation deals with the biodiversity of macro fungi at Dhaka, Gazipur, Bogra, Rajshahi, Pabna, Jaipurhat and Dinajpur district of central and northern region of Bangladesh, where 50 samples were collected, morphologically characterized, photographed and preserved. They were identified to 8 genera and 9 species. The predominant genera were Trametes, Daedaleopsis, Collybia and Armillaria. This preliminary investigation suggested that, the central and northern region of Bangladesh under tropical moist deciduous forest region is enriched with diversity of wild mushrooms.