Open Access Original Research Article

Seedling Emergence of Blighia sapida (K. D. Konig) Seeds Subjected to Different Lengths of Storage and Pretreatments

Olufunke O. Olayode, Theodora N. Osuji

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/21924

Aims: The study investigated the influence of different lengths of storage at room temperature and pretreatments on seedling emergence of Blighia sapida seeds.

Study Design: Randomized complete block design with four replicates was used.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the nursery of Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria for about three months.

Methods: Seeds of Blighia sapida under five lengths of storage at room temperature being Fresh, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days and 28 days were sown in germination boxes filled with topsoil after subjection to four pretreatments thus: Control, Hot water, Soaking in water at room temperature and Scarification. Cumulative germination count was done daily till no further germination was observed for about a week.

Results: Seeds sown Fresh and pretreated by Soaking in water at room temperature had the highest germination percentage of 96.7% followed by those under Control with germination percentage of 76.7%. Seeds stored for 7 days had germination percentage of 33.3% under Control and Scarification whereas the ones subjected to Soaking in water at room temperature produced 40% germination percentage. Hot water pretreatment gave 0% germination under the different lengths of storage. In seeds stored for 14 days, 3.3%, 6.7% and 13.3% germination percentages were observed for Control, Soaking in water at room temperature and Scarification respectively. However, seeds stored for 21 days and 28 days gave 0% germination for the different pretreatments.

Conclusion: Fresh seeds of B. sapida are the most suitable for sowing whereas they can also be stored at room temperature for 7days to obtain appreciable viable seeds beyond which viability cannot be guaranteed even with the use of different pretreatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Inventory of Flora in Um Dom Island (Khartoum State), Sudan

N. Mahmoud Mahmoud, M. S. Elhakeem, A. H. Abdallah, M. Kordofani Kordofani

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/17314

This study documents and updates the flora information of Um Dom Island, Khartoum State, Sudan. Herbarium specimens were prepared and deposited in the Herbarium of the Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum. Identified species were compared with specimens from the same Herbarium. This study showed that there are seventy four flowering plant species belonging to thirty three different families – there were no non-floral varieties identified. Three layers of flora have been identified in the area under study. The upper most, tree layer is dominated by Acacia nilotica, Ziziphus spina-christi, Faidherbia albida, and Prosopis juliflora. The second, shrub layer, is occupied by mainly Calotropis procera, Tamarix nilotica, and the third, a herb layer, is dominated by Cyperus sp. Cenchrus prieurii. Families with high diversity are Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Amaranthaceae. This study is regarded as a departure point and reference for future studies, to assist and show the change in plant cover which ultimately may lead to land degradation and an arid environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Allelopathic Effect of Three Wild Species on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vicia faba, Hordeum vulgare and Triticum aestivum

Azza Ibrahim Ebid

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/22673

Many wild and cultivated grasses, exhibit allelopathy to exclude the associated species by reducing their regeneration. This process involving secondary metabolites produced by plant influence the growth and development of agricultural and biological system. This research was to determine the allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts of different wild species (Calligonum comosum  L, Her,  Rhanterium epapposum Oliv and Rhazya stricta Decne) on seed germination and seedling growth of three crops (Vicia faba, Hordeum vulgare and Triticum aestivum). Effect of water extracts from dry aboveground plant biomass in concentration of 10% (100 g/L) was examined under laboratory conditions in petri dishes. Germination indicators (Germination Percentage (GP) and germination start) were evaluated. The results showed that all the extracts significantly decreased germination percentage, plumule and radicle length of seedlings.  However, leaf extracts of R. stricta Decne had greater inhibitory potential and reduced seedling growth. The significant allelopathic effect remained up to 10 days. The extract had strong inhibitory effect to root elongation of seedling of plants. Differences in sensitivity between plant cultivars were documented. Based on the study results, stem, leaves and flowers residues of (C. comosum L, Her, R. epapposum and R. stricta Decne) showed a negative allelopathic effects on plant growth and should be eliminated from the field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioindicators: Study on Uptake and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Plant Leaves of State Highway Road, Bagalkot, India

N. M. Rolli, S. B. Gadi, T. P. Giraddi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/21770

In this study, Caesalpinia (Caesalpinia pulcherrima) and grass (Cyndon dactylon) was evaluated as the bioindicators of heavy metals such as the Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and Nickel (Ni) contaminated in Bagalkot and along the state high way upto Mudhol. The soil samples at depth (0-20 cm) and caesalpinia and grass leaves were taken from different sampling stations namely Navnagar bypass road (S1), Gaddanakeri cross (S2), Tulasigeri (S3), Kaladagi (S4), Lokapur (S5), Chichakhandi (S6) and Mudhol (S7). The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Mn, Zn, Cr and Ni were measured using GBC- 932 plus Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Austrelia). The results of  the  study  shows that the concentrations of heavy metals in caesalpinia ranged from Pb 20.36 to 29.39 µg/gmm, Cu 3.92 – 5.94 µg/gm, Zn 24.40 to 35.7 µg/gm, Cd 1.01 to 1.78 µg/gm, Mn 27.01 to 69.10 µg/gm, Cr 1.20 to 7.8 µg/gm and Ni 7.9 to 13.1 µg/gm. In grass heavy metal ranges between for Pb 20.16 to 28.01, Cu 3.95 to 5.76 µg/gm, Zn 24.50 to 35.8 µg/gm, Cd 1.15 to 1.52 µg/gm, Mn 28.91 to 72.51 µg/gm, Cr 1.28 to 8.0 µg/gm, Ni 8.1 to 15.1 µg/gm. Similarly in roadside soil heavy metal ranges between Pb 81.91 to 139.8 µg/gm, Cu 39.54 to 58.58 µg/gm, Zn 32.29 to 381.54 µg/gm, Cd 1.51 to 2.08 µg/gm, Mn 1257.9 to 2051 µg/gm, Cr 131.9 to 951.2 µg/gm and Ni 69.53 to 108.6 µg/gm. According to these results the concentration of heavy metals in grass was found high as compared to caesalpinia. Thus, compared to the metal accumulation potential grass is said to be heavy metal accumulator. The variation in heavy metal concentrations is due to changes in traffic density and anthropogenic activities. Thus, generally it is considered that grass and caesalpinia are good bioindicators and can be used in air pollution monitoring studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Population of Wild Ruminants in a Fragmented Forest Habitat: Case Study of Abayum Forest, Ikom Cross River State, Nigeria

Abang Neji Tawo, James Oshita Bukie, Augustine Ugar Ogogo, Francis Ebuta Bisong

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/14516

Aims: To study the effect of forest fragmentation on population density and species diversity of wild ruminants in Abayum forest.

Study Design: Stratified random sampling for the fragments and simple random sampling for interview of hunters.

Place and Duration of Study: Abayum forest, Cross River State, Nigeria. (Latitude 6.00° and 6.15°N and longitude 8.30° and 8.45°E of Green which Meridian). Data on forest fragmentation was collected for a seven year period (2000 to 2007) while data on the population of wild ruminants was collected in two seasons (rainy season and dry season) for one year between March 2010 and April 2011.

Methodology: A random sample of 14 fragments representing 35% sampling intensity was carried out. Number of fragments over a seven year period, size of fragments and their corresponding population of wild ruminants were investigated. Interview of 50 randomly selected hunters in the area was conducted. The fragments were grouped into three viz: 1st, 2nd and 3rd order and samples randomly taken from each. Wildlife population census was carried out through indirect methods such as animal droppings, traits or tracts, feeding habitats and noise.

Results: The number of fragments increased at the rate of 87.5% in 7 years or 12.5% per annum. Human activities such as permanent crop cultivation, settlement, bush burning and logging were the main causes of forest fragmentation. Correlation of the population density of wild ruminants with fragment sizes gave r = 0.375 in duikers, r = 0.611 in other antelopes and r = 0.649 in bushbucks.

Conclusion: Fragment size determined the population of big wild ruminants. Other factors such as hunting pressure, bush burning and farming also contributed in the determination of the population of ruminants in any fragment.

Recommendation: It was recommended that the Cross River State Forestry Commission should be well funded to enforce the anti-deforestation law of Cross River State thus reducing forest fragmentation. Farmers in the area should be taught to adopt intensive farming and agro-forestry systems rather than the shifting cultivation method they practice presently, to help conserve the remaining forest fragments.