Open Access Short communication

Morphometrical Studies of Honeybees in Dinder Biosphere Reserve, Sudan

Lubna Mohammed Abdalla, Siham Kamil Nagi, Ibrahim Mohammed Hashim

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/17194

This study was conducted in Dinder Biosphere Reserve during the dry season of 2009 (February - May) and February 2010. The objective of this research is to conduct morphometrical study of honeybees in DBR in order to know if there are more than one species and their distribution in the reserve. Samples of honeybee workers were collected from wild honeybee colonies nesting in tree cavities and branches. They were selected randomly from 20 locations from the three ecosystems: Maya, Riverine and Dehra. Furthermore, 25 workerbees were selected randomly from each sample, dissected and were mounted on glass slides for the morphometric study. Fourteen traits were measured using a micrometer with the help of stereo-binocular microscope for each worker bee. The obtained data was subjected to one way ANOVA with the three ecosystems as main source of variation. In general, the results obtained showed that, all the samples are for bees belong to one species which is Apis mellifera. Moreover, the statistical analysis of the results indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) among the bees in the three ecosystems with respect to forewing length and width, percentage of yellow coloration, first wax mirror width and the distance between wax mirrors. However, the cubital index was highly significantly different (P < 0.01). It could be concluded that there in the Dinder Biosphere Reserve there is only one species with more than one subspecies and they are associate with Riverine, Maya and Dehra ecosystems. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Prioritizing the Development of Agricultural Conversion and Complementary Industries in Ahar County

Rasoul Ahmadi, Mehdi Imani, Mohsen Shokat Fadaei, Mohammad Khaledi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/23773

Aims: Agricultural industrialization is an important breakthrough to the development of county economy and to the promotion of urbanization. The main aim of the current research is to prioritize the development of conversion and complementary industries in agricultural sector as well as exploring the barriers of creating these industries.

Methodology: We used Delphi method to collect and analyze the expert comments for prioritizing the development of agricultural conversion and complementary industries in Ahar county, Iran. The agricultural experts were selected among experts of Jihad Agriculture Organization and Ahar Municipality as well as academic stuff of Tabriz and Ahar in the field of agriculture. Totally, 20 persons have been selected to fill the questionnaires. We have provided two different kind of questionnaires; the aims of conversion and complementary industries were listed in the first questionnaire to determine their importance values. The second questionnaire has been arranged based on obtained results from the first questionnaire which was consisted of a list of creatable conversion and complementary industries. Selected persons prioritized these alternatives based on Delphi method.

Results: The results showed that increase in income of local farmers and value added and productivity of agricultural products are the most and the least important aims, respectively. Also, first and last priorities for suggested industries were providing of dairy production and roasting of beans such as lentil and grains such as wheat, respectively.

Conclusion: Based on the results, it is expected that the authorities and those in charge to encourage and attract investors to invest in the construction of more processing and conversion industries for agricultural, horticulture and livestock products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pathogens Causing Soft Rot and Blackleg Symptoms in Potatoes in Peri-urban Harare Area

Vongai Marjorie Paradza, Upenyu Mazarura, Elizabeth Ngadze

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/24553

Aims: To identify, using standard biochemical tests, a polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, the soft rot species presumed to be the cause of potato soft rot and blackleg affecting potatoes in commercial farms around the Harare area in Zimbabwe.

Study Design: Biochemical tests, a polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were conducted on the collected isolates.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected at potato commercial farms within a 60 km radius of Harare in May – June 2012. Laboratory experiments were conducted at the University of Zimbabwe, Plant Pathology Laboratory.

Methodology: 24 samples of infected potato tubers and stems were collected from eight farms. Eight representative isolates were selected for identification tests. A polymerase chain reaction using ADE 1/2 primers and sequencing using gyrB and recA genes were carried out. Pathogenicity tests were conducted to further confirm the identity of the bacteria. Plants were observed for seven days for symptom development.

Results: Biochemical tests showed that seven of the isolates were very homogeneous in their physical, cultural and biochemical properties. They tested positive for catalase, oxidative/fermentative and oxidase activity, three reactions that confirm their identity as soft rot bacteria. One isolate slightly differed from the others although results for most of the tests were similar. Polymerase chain reaction results showed amplification of the 420 bp fragment from all the eight isolates indicative of Dickeya species. Phylogenetic analyses of the rec A and gyr B gene sequences showed high genetic homogeneity of 95% and above between the isolates and Dickeya dadantii reference strain. Pathogenicity tests showed that healthy plants inoculated with the isolated bacteria all produced typical blackleg symptoms.

Conclusion: Physiological and molecular tests confirmed that the most common pathogen causing blackleg and soft rot in potatoes grown in areas around Harare is from the Dickeya genus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Activity of Nine Medicinal Plants against Aspergillus species from Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao)

Olukayode O. Orole, Timothy O. Adejumo, Regina T. Orole

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/24602

Aims: The study was to screen the activities of nine medicinal plants against Aspergillus species isolated from stored cocoa bean seeds collected in Akure, Owo, Ondo, Ile-Oluji, Ikpenmen, and Oba-Akoko, all in Ondo State, Nigeria with a view to getting a potent, cheap antifungal plant that is easily available and capable of halting fungal infestation and subsequent mycotoxin production.

Place and Duration: The study was carried out in Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko between July, 2014 to November, 2014.

Methodology: Inhibitory activities of locally sourced plant parts were tested against nine Aspergillus species isolated from cocoa bean seeds from Ondo State, Nigeria. Methanolic extraction of the plant parts yielded crude extracts which were tested against the fungal species using the food poison method and filter disc methods.

Results: Extraction of phytochemicals showed that sweet potato had the highest yield of 13% with a creamy coloration. Radial growth of Aspergillus foetidus was 12 mm at 24 h incubation while A. niger aggregate and A. aculeatus almost overgrew their plates at 72 h with 42 mm radii. The extracts of bitter leaf did not appreciably stop growth of the fungi as it did not inhibit A. niger aggregate, A. aculeatus, A. nidulans, A. carbonarius and A. glaucus. Lippia alba resisted the growth of all the fungi at very high percentages except A. fumigatus at 10±0.9% inhibition.

Conclusion: The study showed that plant extracts possesses antifungal potentials and so their continued use in traditional everyday medicine justified.

Open Access Review Article

Weather Conditions and Yield of Wheat in Bosnia and Herzegovina with Emphasis on Climatic Change and Tuzla Canton

Meho Majdancic, Meho Basic, Besim Salkic, Vlado Kovacevic, Mirta Rastija, Jurica Jovic

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/23994

The aim of this study was to test the impact of monthly precipitation and temperature  regimes on winter wheat yields in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) for the last 15-year period (2000-2014) with an emphasis on its administrative parts Federation of B&H (FB&H) and Tuzla Canton (TC:  from 2005-2014 period). Winter wheat is an important field crop in B&H, but yields are low, (average of 3.24 t ha-1) with very high variation among years (from 2.26 to 3.92 t ha-1). We estimated that yield differences are mainly due to weather variability. Average temperature in Tuzla (October-June) was 8.3°C in the last 15 years or 0.9°C higher than the 1961-1990 and 1925-1940 averages. Precipitation close to the 30-year average (663 mm, 642 mm and 636 mm) and their balanced monthly distribution characterized three growing seasons favorable for wheat (2007/2008, 2008/2009 and 2012/2013, respectively). Also, the temperature regime was without excessive cold or warm periods in these years. Under these conditions, wheat yields were considerably higher (3.7, 3.8 and 3.9 t ha-1, respectively) than in three estimated unfavorable years (2002/2003, 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 with 2.3, 2.7 and 2.9 t ha-1, respectively). Weather deviations as either drought or excessive precipitation in combination with high temperatures characterized estimated less favorable years. Tuzla Canton had about 5% of the national wheat harvested area, whereas yields were somewhat higher compared to the country average. Although it is evident that yields of wheat and weather conditions in B&H are very different between years, by performing simple correlation analysis there was found a minimal connection of precipitation and temperature with yields. Significant negative correlations were found only in level TC between yields and monthly values of precipitation in April (-0.88**), May (-0.70**) and total precipitation (-0.73**). Also, significant positive correlations were found between April (0.76**) and May (0.62*) temperature and yields.