Hyperspectral ground measurements can be used for giving timely information about crops in specific areas and thereby providing valuable data for decision makers. In the current study, ASD field Spec4 spectroradiometer were used to monitor the variation and differences of the summer crop vegetation cover reflectance. Furthermore, two hyperspectral vegetation indices calculated from the data represented by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVIHS and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index SAVIHS in east Nile Delta, Egypt. The results obtained showed that the mid- season stage had the highest values of calculated VI’s that return to the high reflection from the plant canopy at the near infrared and high absorption at the red wavelength, also the initial growth stage VI’s values lower than the mid- season stage and higher than the late season. In addition, the analysis of spectral signatures differences showed the late growth stage was the highest reflection overall the visible range (blue, green and red). Results of Tukey’s HSD showed that blue, Red and NIR spectral zones are more sufficient in the monitoring differences between peanut growth stages than green, SWIR-1 and SWIR-2 spectral zones.
Aims: To evaluate drought-tolerant (DT) maize varieties for water use efficiency at the seedling and grain filling stages and determine the relationship between water use efficiency and grain yield of the DT maize varieties since information about the water use efficiency of these DT maize varieties is limited in literature.
Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in three replicates.
Place and Duration of Study: The planting was carried out just at the beginning of the early cropping season (March) (Drought) as well as the peak of rain for early cropping season (June)(Rain-fed) of 2015 at the Teaching and Research Farm of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile–Ife (7º28ˈN 4º33ˈE and 244 m above sea level), Nigeria.
Methodology: Water Use Efficiency traits and grain yield data were obtained from each plot. Daily values of evapotranspiration, rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures were also taken from the meteorological station of the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation among Water Use Efficiency (WUE) traits and grain yield data were carried out.
Results: The varieties that recorded the highest cumulative water used for grain filling are 2012TZE-WDTC4STRC5 and 2014TZE-WDTSTR with 177.60 mm while the varieties with lowest cumulative water used are 2004TZE-WDTSTRC4 (164.93 mm) and Obatanpa (Local Check) (158.93 mm) under drought, On the contrary, Obatanpa (204.58 mm) was among the varieties with the highest grain-filling cumulative water used under rain-fed condition. The varieties with the highest grain-filling cumulative water used for growth rate are 2014TZE-WDTSTR and 2012TZE-WDTC4STRC5 under drought (13.74 g/day and 11.31 g/day respectively) and rain-fed conditions (10.13 g/day and 10.82 g/day respectively) while the lowest grain-filling growth rate was obtained by variety 2004TZE-WDTSTRC4 (7.02 g/day) under drought and (7.05 g/day) under rain-fed conditions.
Conclusion: The highest grain-filling water use efficiency was obtained in varieties 2012TZE-WDTC4STRC5 and 2014TZE-WDTSTR. There was no significant relationship between the water use efficiency traits and grain yield of the DT maize varieties used in this study.
Tomato fruits play an important role in human nutrition because of their high content in health-promoting substances. However, the cultivation of the crop requires substantial chemical (fertilizers and pesticides), which can impair the nutritional value of fruits produced and harm the environment. This study aimed at using biological material to improve the tomato cultivation system. Tomato seedlings were transplanted in perforated polythene bags containing a soil enriched with powder or extraction residues from leaves of Acacia albida and Crotalaria retusa. Aqueous, ethyl acetate, chloroform or hexane extracts from leaves of Acacia albida and Crotalaria retusa were sprayed on aerial parts of tomato plants. Of a total of twelve parameters measured, eight parameters were significantly improved after treatments with aqueous or chloroform extracts from A. albida leaves, six after soil enrichment with the powder of A. albida leaves, four after foliar sprays of ethyl acetate extract from C. retusa leaves, three after soil amendment with powder or extraction residues from leaves of C. retusa or extraction residues from A. albida leaves, two after the application as sprays of hexane extract from A. albida leaves, and one after treatments with hexane extract or powder from leaves of C. retusa. However, foliar sprays of the aqueous extract from leaves of A. albida had the most efficacious effects, leading to increases in the number of fruits per raceme, number of fruits per plant, number of racemes per plant, root biomass, shoot biomass, fruit biomass and total biomass, respectively, by 2.3 (38.98%), 35.1 (92.61%), 2.5 (39.06%), 6.1 g (50%), 74 g (29.75%), 300 g (42.85%) and 300 g (30%). These treatments also induced a decrease in the rate of flower abortion in tomato plants by 6.3 (25.09%). Foliar sprays of aqueous extracts from leaves of A. albida could be integrated into the tomato agricultural practice in order to reduce the quantity of chemical inputs usually required.
We observed that insect interactions lead to damaged fruits, leaves, stems, and exposed fruits and tree trunks to pathogenic infection, however, some citrus trees were protected by these interactions. Our study shows that Oecophylla longinoda and Crematogaster spp. protect citrus aphids and citrus scale insects from their natural enemies leading to their outbreak and further damage to the citrus plant. Citrus trees with more Oecophylla and Crematogaster had fewer pests such as fruit flies, termites and the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus. Our study shows that “chain” formation by weaver ants, Oecophylla enables them to reach the same colony in different citrus trees. We identified wild passion plant, Passiflora sp. as an alternate host for Leptoglossus spp. We recommend Oecophylla and Crematogaster as biological control agents against fruit flies, termites and the variegated grasshopper; however, they could lead to an outbreak of citrus aphids and citrus scale insects. Phasmomyrmexaberrans is antagonistic to Oecophylla and so in an attempt to utilize Oecophylla as a biological control agent, we recommed that care must be taken to ensure that they do not come together. As biological control agents in orchards that do not have closed canopies, we recommend that sticks or ropes be connected to adjacent trees to facilitate movement of the ants to enhance their dispersal in orchards. Care must be taken to clear all Passiflora sp. from citrus orchards.
Aim: The experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition of some formulated feed for ruminant animals.
Methodology: Two energy sources and three protein sources of feed were formulated at different percentage level in the ratio of 60:40 energy to protein. Three Wadara bulls fitted with permanent rumen cannula 40 mm diameters were used. The bulls were fed groundnut haulms and cowpea husk as basal diet and supplemented with mix concentrates of Dry leftover food, camel rumen content, cotton seed cake and groundnut haulms, salt and bone meal. 3 g of feed sample were measured using electronic weighing scale and carefully dropped into the nylon bag which is incubated into the cannulated bulls at specific interval of time starting from 6 hours to 96 hours with interval of 6 hours in between.
Results: Dry matter values obtained for the formulations are within the range of 92.80% to 96.60% for the twelve (12) formulations for treatments, while the crude protein of the twelve formulations had been recorded within the range of 12.77%-15.07%. The crude fibre contents increased from 15.0% to 24.6% for T1-T12 in that order. Treatments 4 has been observed to be highly degradable at different levels (hours) of the experiment.
Conclusion: The feed samples under study were evaluated and can be used sufficiently to meet the crude protein requirement of ruminant’s animals. Thus, these feed ingredients can be used to prepare concentrates feeds for ruminants, because they are cheap and readily available.