Open Access Original Research Article

Performance and Tibia Characteristics of Chickens Fed Cassava Chips Supplemented with Dl-Methionine

A. D. Ologhobo, Samuel Etop, O. A. Ogunwole, G. O. Adeyemo, I. O. Adejumo, Adeoye David

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/27355

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of cassava chips and DL-methionine supplementation on performance and tibia bone characteristics of broiler chickens. Broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 20 treatments in a 4x5 factorial arrangement with 5 dietary levels of cassava chips (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 corn replacement) and 4 dietary levels of DL-methionine supplementation (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% i.e. 0, ½ NRC, NRC and double NRC 1994 recommended levels). Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance. At starter phase, birds on cassava chips-based diets had significantly (P<0.05) higher body weight gain (BWG) than the control. Those on 25% cassava chip-based diet compared well with the control. Methionine supplement improved BWG at both starter and finisher phases. Cassava chips supplemented with DL-methionine can replace corn 100.00% in broiler chickens diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Knowledge and Awareness on Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) in Camarines Sur, Philippines

Ma. Teresa B. Lirag

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/27072

Aim: Filipino farmers need a crop which provides affordability and food security at the same time. Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is a valuable crop with quality protein which can be grown successfully in the Philippines. It is ideal for home gardening, can generate additional income, increase soil fertility, prevent soil erosion and produce quality fodder. With these numerous advantages, it is essential to know the level of awareness and knowledge of farmers on the benefits of this protein-rich crop.

Methodology: With the use of structured questionnaire and interview, a total of 357 farmers from five districts in Camarines Sur, Philippines were taken as respondents through stratified sampling technique. Frequency counts and percentages were used to describe the profile of farmers, their knowledge and awareness on pigeonpea. Chi-square test was used to determine the association of gender, age, district and type of ecosystem on the farmers’ knowledge on pigeonpea.

Results: Findings showed that 92% of the total respondents were aware of pigeonpea crop. Statistical analysis showed that there was a degree of association with knowledge on age but no association existed on knowledge with other factors such as gender, district/location and type of ecosystem. Farmers’ highest information needs were on breakthroughs and researches and the preferred media for information dissemination was through assembly/fora and print media. Promotional activities was conducted through seminars and trainings, seed distribution, product development and cooking demonstration and information, education and communication (IEC) materials development.

Conclusion: The high level of farmers’ awareness and knowledge must be sustained through participatory approach in planning research and extension programs on pigeonpea. The proactive roles and strategic partnership of the local government units and academic institutions in providing start-up financial resources and technical know-how to respond to location-specific needs of farmers is imperative to stimulate and drive farmers to cultivate this crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils on the Development of Eggs and Adult of Caryedon serratus Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Pest of Stored Groundnut

Ouedraogo Issoufou, Nebie Charles Roger, Dakouo Dona, Guenda Wendgoundi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/26435

In Burkina Faso, the groundnut is attacked during storage by the weevil Caryedon serratus Olivier.  The damage caused by this pest can reach 70% in the absence of protection methods.

To protect stored groundnut against C. serratus, essential oils extracted from four plants Lippia multiflora M, Cymbopogon shoenanthus (L.) Spreng, Ocimum americanum Sims and Hyptis suaveolens Poit obtained by hydro-distillation of leaves, were tested on adults and eggs of this pest. 

The application of essential oils in doses ranging from 10 to 25 µl induces in 24 hours a mortality ranging from 15 to 100% according to the type of essential oils. Thus the use of 10 µl of Lippia multiflora caused 100% mortality in 24 hours against 87.5% for C. shoenanthus, 27.5% for Hyptis suaveolens and 57.5% for Ocimum americanum.

The CL50 varied by 10.41 µl in 24 hours for  Hyptis suaveolens oil, with Lippia multiflora it is  6.51 µl  for only 5.17 µl for Cymbopogon shoenanthus.

The result show that the use essential oils against C. serratus in laboratory conditions has significantly reduced  the eggs emitted by females and their lives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnosis in Production and Post-harvest Processing of Nuts of Cola nitida (Malvaceae) in Côte d’Ivoire

Deigna-Mockey Viviane, Kouadio Kan Rodrigue, Konan N’Guessan Ysidor, Biego Godi Henri Marius

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/28369

Aims: To determine some characteristics involved in the cola path and to reveal the main constraints related to the production and trading of cola nuts.

Study Design: Field investigation from farmers in the main regions of the cola cultivation in Côte d’Ivoire. Main concerns from the cola farmers probed. Survey extended to traders of cola nuts. Responses recorded through individual questionnaire brought during visitations at farming lands.

Place and Duration of Study: From countryside farmers in 4 Districts of Côte d’Ivoire, and then from citizens traders; between 2014 and 2015.

Methodology: Study conducted in the main areas of production of cola nuts in Côte d'Ivoire, namely Districts of Mountains, Comoé, Lagoons and Down-Sassandra. Field investigation performed from 178 producers of cola nuts. Information requested about the profile, the cultural practices, the production, the plantation maintenance and the economy of the cola farmers. Data gathered through individual or collective interviews. Post-harvest treatment of the cola nuts also investigated, from 9 whole traders in the commune of Anyama.

Results: Male gender is overriding (98.9%) in cola culture. The adults between 41 and 60 years old are more represented (55.9%). Most of the farmers (68.1%) do not belong neither in cooperative nor other management structure. Hard overall farmers (94.7%) acquire their cola seeds from the neighbouring plantations or purchase them from free markets. These seeds are consisted in 66.5% traditional variety of cola, but the percentages of users are different from the regions (v = .309; p < .001). Moreover, cocoa remains the top plant for intercropping with the cola (47.9%). The investigated districts are mainly with adult cola plants (56.5%) flowering twice a year, as well as the fruits harvesting and trading. However, the plants provide low yield from 42% of the farmers, major rate of them having any access to substantial manpower (58%) and to phytosanitary products (76.1%) for treating plants which generally have large concerns with diseases (92%) or parasites (75%). These farmers don’t also rely on any information about the effective technical practices in cola cultivation. Cola nuts seem profitable for 86.7% of the actors, but lower purchasing prices are provided to farmers (74.5%) by traders. Traders are mainly (76.6%) from ‘’Malinké’’ ethnic group. In the whole trade centers, cola nuts are kept fresh using chemical pesticides. The processing is achieved by employees displaying large ignorance (89%) about health hazards involving the pesticides.

Conclusion: The production and trading of cola nuts are concerned with many troubles, and chemicals used for nuts post-harvest processing could incur serious risks for user and consumer of cola nuts. Efficient technical routes for production of cola nuts should be developed, including availability of improved seeds and storage of cola products with safety products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Propagation of Treculia africana Decne Species through Promotion of Seed Germination by Some Physical and Chemical Treatments

Mensah Stephen Ikechukwu, Ekeke Chimezie

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2016/28123

The benefits, uses and potentials of Treculia africana Decne (African breadfruit) have been identified as socio-economically, industrially and environmentally important. However, lack of commercial propagation posses an extinction threat of this endangered species as seeds expressed poor germination under germinating conditions. Consequently this study was carried out in order to ascertain the most effective methods for enhancing seed germination of this economically important plant. The effects of washing the seeds; air-drying the seeds for different time intervals; soaking seeds in H2O2 for different time intervals; and germinating in different potassium nitrate concentrations were investigated. The results of all the treatments indicated that for dark germinations, 1 mM potassium nitrate treatment expressed the highest germination (84%), followed by soaking in H2O2 for 30 minutes (78%), then 144 hrs air-drying (68%), and washing of seeds (46%) unlike unwashed seeds (28%), while the control for all treatments gave germinations that ranged from 2 to 28%. However, the light germinations were lower than the dark germinations with the various treatments expressing the following optimum percentage germinations (KNO3 – 53%; H2O2 – 72%; Air-drying for 72hrs- 28%, washing – 14% and unwashed – 2%) and the controls ranged from 2% to 14%. Light did not promote the seed germinations of T. africana. These findings implied that KNO3, H2O2, Air-drying and washing treatments should be employed for the enhancement of seed germination of T. africana seeds for the production and propagation of this invaluable and economically viable plant.