Environmental conservation is an interdisciplinary program that covers a variety of ecological systems and their interrelationships, including those with human society, plants, and animals. This study is to investigate the degree of environmental factors and the flora on the Backcheon River at three regions during four seasons. The low water's edge vegetation and flood way vegetation in this river were naturally formed a variety of vegetation communities. Land use in riparian zones at upper area of the Backcheon River was partly bush or grassland as natural floodplain. Whereras, land uses in riparian zones river levee at middle and low areas were arable land, urban, residential mixed. The BOD was within acceptable levels. The application of the Braun-Blanquet approach for plant classification in this area is presented in the article. According to the existing phytosociological data, 28 families, 63 genera, 69 species, 10 varieties, 22 associations, and 15 communities have been identified. Naturalized plants at the upper, middle, and low areas were 6, 14, and 17 species, respectively. Awareness of current conditions and relationships between land uses and resource goals is essential for successful restoration of riparian systems.
Aims: This study was undertaken to evaluate the merchantability of bagged PICS cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp) containing a biopesticide (leaves of Lippia multiflora Moldenke) during storage.
Study Design: Cowpea grains were collected from April to May 2015 in the Southwest of Côte d’Ivoire and the fresh leaves of Lippia multiflora were dried in sunlight for 7 days and chopped before using as biopesticide. The storage bags used were from Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) developed by Purdue University for storing cowpeas from Niger.
Place and Duration of the Study: This study was carried out during June 2015 to February 2016 in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Science, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Côte d’Ivoire.
Methodology: For the storage of cowpea seeds, 6 lots (1 control polypropylene bag, 1 control PICS bag, and 4 lots in PICS bags with biopesticide) were used. The 4 lots in PICS bags were filled with different proportions of biopesticides (0.7%, 2.5%, 4.3% and 5% of chopped dried leaves per bag). The filling of the bags (50 kg) was done in stratum, alternating cowpea seeds and leaves of Lippia multiflora. Changes in moisture, weight losses and damages caused by insects were then evaluated after 0, 1, 2, 4.5, 7 and 8 months.
Results: Moisture content, weight losses and damages of the control without PICS (polypropylene bags) were respectively 14.67 ± 0.15%, 22.03 ± 0.25% and 43.14 ± 2.79%, respectively at 4.5 months. For the control PICS bag without biopesticide, the values of moisture content, weight losses and damages were 14.10 ± 0.11%, 19.20 ± 1.74% and 37.77 ± 3.27% after 8 months of storage, respectively. The moisture values, weight losses and damages in PICS bags of cowpeas treated with biopesticides were low and less than, 12.10 ± 0.10%, 4.03 ± 0.27% 11.18 ± 0.01%.
Conclusion: Adding Lipppia multiflora leaves in PICS bags for storage allows a good preservation and merchantability of cowpeas grains after 8 months.
The experiment was carried out in peasant (local) farmers’ farms in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto to investigate the effect of long-term cultivation (involving organic fertilization) on physical properties of a sandy soil in Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria. The experiment consisted of two treatments (cultivated and uncultivated lands) which were replicated 5 times. Measurement of Physical (texture, bulk density: Bd, total porosity: TP, and gravimetric moisture content: Øm) properties of the soil were made at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. Data obtained was analyzed using two-sample t-test. The results revealed that, long-term farmers cultivation practices has no significant (p> 0.05) effect on physical properties of the soil, except Øm, sand and silt contents. However, long-term continuous cultivation slightly deteriorated physical quality of the soil (at 0-15 cm soil depth), which is reflected by increased Bd, reduced TP and Øm contents of the soil. The study further revealed that, cultivation encourages redistribution of silt within measured depths. Cultivated soil had highest silt (103.40 g/kg) and lowest sand (876.60 g/kg) at the 0-15 cm soil depth compared to the uncultivated soil, while a reverse trend was observed at the 15-30 cm soil depth. From the results, it can be concluded that, the farmers’ long-term cultivation practice is still normal soil tillage that is capable of maintaining the soil’s physical properties for sustainable agricultural crop production over longer (20-25 years) period of cultivation.
An experiment was conducted to check the effect of foliar spray of nano and organic fertilizers and a growth regulator on vegetative growth of sunflower crop. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Spanish class (Viki) was cultivated from march 2013 to June 2013 at College of Agriculture, University of Wasit, Iraq. Three levels of nano silver viz., control, 25 and 50 mL/L; three levels of organic fertilizer (Algastar) viz., control, 0.75 and 1.5 g/L and three levels of salicylic acid viz., control 60 and 120 mg/L were foliar sprayed at 65 days old sunflower crop. Results showed that foliar spray of 50 mL/L of nano silver, 1.5 g/L of organic fertilizer (Algastar) and 120 mg/L of salicylic acid have a positive effects on average number of leaves, number of branches and leaf contents of carbohydrate. There was no significant interaction among nano silver, organic fertilizers and salicylic acid on all studied traits of sunflower.
Traditional beliefs on wild plants utilization are rapidly eroding worldwide leading to loss of rich traditional practices, knowledge, plant species and habitats. The study focused on identification and documentation of wild plant species used in craft making and local construction among the Tiv people of Benue State. Three Local Government Areas (LGAs) within the Tiv ethnic territory in the State namely; Guma, Gboko and Kwande were purposively selected to reflect the vegetation stratification and major sub-ethnic groups of the Tiv people. Information on wild plants locally used for craft making and local construction was obtained through the collection of plant specimens and semi- structured interviews with local residents using group discussions. In craft making, 30 plant species belonging to 20 families dominated by Caesalpinioideae and Fabaceae (4 species each) were documented in Guma, while in Gboko, 13 species in 10 families dominated by Mimosoidae (3 species) were recorded. In Kwande, 22 species belonging to 11 families were recorded and Caesalpinioideae dominated with 5 species. Crafts made ranged from mortar and pestle, local tool handles, recliners, brooms, baskets, bags, sieves, trays, mallets, etc. In local construction, Guma LGA had 13 species from 10 families dominated by poaceae (4 species), 15 species from 14 families were recorded in Gboko while Kwande had 13 species belonging to 11 families. Materials from wild plant species such as rafters, rafter holders, twines and ropes were utilized for thatching of huts and construction of local bridges and culverts. None of the respondents engaged in the planting of the species in spite of the destructive harvesting methods employed for some crafts and local construction works. It is therefore recommended that urgent steps be taken by all stakeholders towards creating awareness on the effects of incessant harvesting of the plant species and the need for regeneration of preferred species for craft making and local construction activities in the area.