In Fogera district of northwestern Ethiopia, agroforestry land use systems are considered as sustainable and productive approaches as they have multiple benefits. Agroforestry systems in Fogera were developed by the farmers themselves over time; however, their distribution had remained to certain localities. Thus, this research answers why some farmers practice it while others not. To address this general question a study was conducted with the objectives to assess the major determinant factors affecting farmers’ practicing of agroforestry and to identify dominant traditional agroforestry practices. Data collection was based on a household survey (N=150), focus group discussion (FGD) and field observations. Household and farm characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics. T-test and ᵡ2 were used to compare practitioners and non practitioners for continuous and discrete variables, respectively. The econometric analysis using logit model was also done to identify key factors that influence practicing of agroforestry. Fifteen variables were included in the model out of which five of them were found to affect agroforestry practicing significantly. Age (-) and attitude (+) at 1% significance level; land tenure security (+), erosion (+) and training in natural resource management and/ or agriculture (+) at 5% significance level affected practicing significantly. The dominant agroforestry practices identified in the district were farm boundary, farm woodlot and homestead tree integration mainly with Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Land shortage and free grazing were also found widely to hinder agroforestry practicing. Therefore, due emphasis should be given to capitalize on promising factors and also in addressing the obstacles before expanding the experience of practitioners and introducing new improved agroforestry technologies to other areas in Ethiopia.
A field experiment was conducted at the research field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, in the Robi season during the period from November 2013 to March 2014 to study the effect of sowing date on yield and seed quality of soybean. The aim of the study was to find out the appropriate sowing time of soybean. The experiment consists of four different sowing date viz.,18th November, 25th November, 2nd December and 9th December. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) factorial with five replications. The result indicated significant variations in number of pods plant-1, pods length, number of seeds pod-1, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, stover yield, biological yield, harvest index, germination percentage, vigor index, protein content and oil content due to different sowing dates. The results revealed that, the maximum number of pods plant-1 (27.11), pods length (3.48 cm), number of seeds pod-1 (1.91), weight of 1000-seeds (86 g), seed yield (2243 kg ha-1), harvest index (61.55%) and also maximum germination percentage (94.42%), vigor index (2103), protein content (39.37%) and oil content (25.94%) were found when soybean was sown on 2nd December that given the maximum yield and good quality soybean seed.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the important oil seed crops in Ethiopia. It is famous for international market and its production is challenged by inappropriate agronomic practices, insect pest infestation and weather uncertainties. Sesame webworm, Antigastra catalaunalis is a major pest in western Tigray. To assess the incidence and severity of A. catalaunalis, a survey was conducted in western zone of Tigray (Kafta Humera, Tsegede and Welkait) in 2015 cropping season starting from seedling up to capsule development stages. A total of 48 farm plots was assessed for prevalence, incidence and severity. All surveyed farm plots were infested at all stages of the crop. In the study area incidence of the pest was 66% and 15% capsule damage/severity. Capsule developmental stage of the crop was the most infested crop growth stage in the surveyed area and 100% incidence was also observed in late sown sesame (end of July). An increasing infestation trend of the pest was also observed as altitude is decreased. Therefore, A. catalaunalis is an economic pest in western zone of Tigray.
A field trial was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture Research and Teaching Farm in Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria to determine the kenaf genotypes that are adapted to the area during the 2012 cropping season. The thirty genotypes were planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates.
Results from this study showed that the genotypes differed significantly in terms of establishment and growth. The genotype NHC-39 had the tallest stands, NHC-14 had the highest number of established plants, NHC-14 was thickest in terms of stem girth, and NHC-25 had the maximum number of leaves, while NHC-16 had the highest leaf area per plant or foliar canopy. Evidence from the growth characteristics measured revealed that the following genotypes NHC14, NHC-16, NHC-25 and NHC-39 have the potential to survive and adapt to the Coastal Plain Sand area of the Niger Delta. The cultivation of these identified genotypes of kenaf is sustainable in the study area and is recommended as a part of the cropping system.
This study was carried out to investigate the activities of soil microorganisms in the soybean rhizosphere inoculated with bradyrhizobium and mycorrhizal fungi. It involves a field experiment carried out at Federal University of Agricultural, Abeokuta, Nigeria, using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Treatments applied included 4.5 kg/ha poultry manure, 40 kg/ha Single Superphosphate, Mycorrhizal and 200 kg/ha of soybean seed and 1 g/ha Bradyrhizobium. Treatments were replicated thrice. Result showed significant difference between treatments on yield, growth and biomass activities in soybean production. Poultry manure, Phosphorus source, and Bradyrhizobium gave highest plant height of 47.99 and respectively at 14 WAP. Mycorrhizal with 10 tons poultry manure gave highest yield (0.12 t/ha). Microbial activities were significantly influenced by treatments with Bradyrhizobium inoculation in giving higher total bacteria count, total fungal count, microbial biomass C. Single Superphosphate in total bacterial count and microbial biomass N; poultry manure of 5 tons in total fungal count, microbial biomass C, N and P (p ≥ 0.05): Bradyrhizobium, and 5 tons of poultry manure gave highest total fungal count (0.07 CFU/g), 10 tons poultry manure gave the highest total bacterial count (1.26 CFU/g), and 5 tons poultry manure gave highest microbial biomass C (198.1 mg/kg), N (124.9 mg/kg) and P (232.2 mg/kg). Soil N (0.16%) and organic C (17.11%) were highest in plot treated with 5 tons poultry manure (0.16% for N and 17.11% for organic C), while Bradyrhizobium gave highest available P (14.16 mg/kg). Cellulase activities was highest in plots without Bradyrhizobium (0.14 mg/kg), mycorrhizal (0.14 mg/kg), 5 tons poultry manure (0.4 t/ha), 10 tons poultry manure (0.14 t/a), while protease and urease activities were highest in plots with 5 tons poultry manure (0.13 mg/kg for protease and 0.17 mg/kg for urease). Addition of 5 tons of poultry manure application increased soil microbial activities, growth and yield of soybean.
The rubber production falls due to the tapping panel dryness that has always been a major concern in rubber cultivation. This problem is acute when it is about clones of the class to active metabolisms which are very sensitive to tapping panel dryness. In response, this study was proposed to determine the latex harvesting technologies adapted to clones of this class, to the management of the availability of work tappers hand and socio-economic conditions of the Cote d’Ivoire. Treatments S/2 d2 6d/7 nil stimulation; S/2 d3 6d/7 ET2.5% Pa1(1) 4/y; S/2 d4 6d/7 ET2.5% Pa1(1) 4/y; S/2 d4 6d/7 ET2.5% Pa1(1) 8/y; S/2 d5 6d/7 ET2.5% Pa1(1) 8/y; S/2 d6 6d/7 ET2.5% Pa1(1) 10/y were tested in an experimental randomized complete blocks on the clones IRCA 111, IRCA 130 and PB 260. The parameters measured in rubber trees were rubber yield, radial vegetative growth and the tapping panel dryness. Results show that these clones are highly productive. The tapping panel dryness rates are relatively low than usual for the clones to active metabolism. Treatments S/2 d2 6d/7 nil stimulation and S/2 d4 6d/7 ET2.5% Pa1(1) 8/y would not be suitable to harvest latex of clones of this class because they are respectively consumer of bark (exhaustion source for the tree) and increases the rate of tapping panel dryness. Against the ground by S/2 d3 6d/7 ET2.5% Pa1(1) 4/y; S/2 d4 6d/7 ET2.5% Pa1(1) 4/y; S/2 d5 6d/7 ET2.5% Pa1(1) 8/y and S/2 d6 6d/7 ET2.5% Pa1(1) 10/y are best suited to harvest latex of clones of the active metabolism class because they generate large rubber production while maintaining a good vegetative growth with low dry notch rate.