The effects of pre planting cloves treatment with Gibberellic acid (GA3) plant hormone and cold temperature storage duration to improve growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.), was investigated during 2013/2014 production year at Haramaya Eastern Ethiopia under rain- fed and irrigation condition. Randomized complete block design was used with four GA3 concentration (0, 125, 250 and 375 ppm) and three cold storage (7°C) durations (10, 20, and 30 days) with three replications. The interaction effect of GA3 and cold storage duration were highly significantly increased on yield and growth traits. Treatment GA3 125 ppm for 20 days of cold storage duration recorded the greatest increased in garlic plant height (53.76 cm), leaf width (1.31 cm), bulb width (4.96 cm), neck diameter (1.60 cm), mean bulb weight (25.40 g), harvest index (0.76), total bulb yield (8.38 t/ha) and marketable yield (8.05 t/ha). Bulb size distribution in weight (8.86 g) and number (4.61) on large cloves were significantly increased at treatment GA3 125 ppm with 20 days of cold storage duration. Unmarketable garlic clove weight was influenced at treatments of GA3 375 ppm in all levels of storage duration. The whole result analysis showed that optimum growth performance and good bulb yield of garlic was obtained from treatment of 125 ppm GA3 with 20 days of cold storage duration.
Global pesticides use is increasing with environmental contamination and consumer concerns over food safety reflecting this trend. A random sampling technique using a structured questionnaire was used to select 108 cabbage farmers in Ghana and were personally interviewed. The study found that most farmers had no formal education or were educated only to primary level so had limited capacity to read and understand labels of pesticides. Whilst biopesticides were popular, about 45% of the growers use synthetic insecticides in controlling pests such as diamondback moth, cabbage aphids, cabbage white butterfly, cabbage web worm and whitefly. Forty-four percent of growers do not adhere to use of the recommended rates of insecticides, because they fail to control pests effectively. Growers with formal education were more likely to adhere to the recommended application rates of pesticides. Respondents with training in agriculture, as opposed to formal education, tended not to adhere to recommended application rates. Overall, seventy-seven percent of growers did not wear any personal protective gear during chemical application and 39% had experienced at least a symptom of pesticide poisoning. Over 75% of respondents dispose of empty pesticides containers on the farm and 11% harvest their cabbage within one week after application of insecticides. Results suggest significant risks to farmers, consumers and the environment. It is expected that persistent education on the safe use of pesticides will lead to positive change in attitude of farmers.
Medicinal plants are in nature and are cultivated worldwide and also commercially. This study was aimed at assessing the protective potential of leaf extracts of Annona senegalensis against selected fungal pathogens of sorghum seeds. Before the use of the seeds, they were checked for viability and surface sterilized. In this study, the effective concentration, optimum soaking time, protective potential of the extract and antibacterial effect of the extracts were carried out. During each setup, at the end of the planting period, percentage germination, germination index, germination capacity, germination rate, germination time and seed vigour were calculated. The most effective concentrations of the aqueous, n-hexane, ethanol extracts of Annona senegalensis and copper sulphate solution were observed to be 2000 mg/L, 7000 mg/L, 2000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L respectively while the best soaking times of the seeds in the copper sulphate solution, aqueous and n-hexane extracts of Annona senegalensis were 30 min while for ethanol extract was 60 min. The infected seeds that were treated with the extracts showed high level of germination and seed vigour. This study was able to reveal the potential of Annona senegalensis in the enhancement of germination and seedling vigour as well as the protective effect against fungal pathogens. This study can be exploited to control the growth of storage or spoilage fungi thus reducing the dependence on the synthetic fungicides.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important vegetable crop for income, food and nutrition in Africa. Production of the crop is currently threatened by leaf miner [Tutaabsoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)]. Heavy infestation by T. absoluta has been reported to cause yield losses ranging from 80-100%. Tuta absoluta has high rate of reproduction and short life cycle making it very dominant in the infested tomato fields. Insecticide application for control of the pest is uneconomical for subsistence farming and beyond the earnings of majority of resource-poor farmers in Africa. Use of host resistance and or integrated pest management (IPM) strategies is slightly or not in use thus making the pest reign in the majority of African countries. This review discusses how T. absoluta threatens production and recommends some focal areas towards addressing this pest problem in the tomato industry in Africa.
Excessive population pressure and low per capita landholding in Bangladesh often cause food crises. Recently, the country has achieved self-sufficiency in cereals production, at a marginal level, but still needs to continue importing. Therefore, to ensure food security of the ever-increasing population, it needs to increase the per hectare food production in Bangladesh. Rice is the key crop of the country, as an estimated 75 percent of the people’s caloric intake comes from rice because of the suitability of the climate for rice production and the rice-based food habits of the nation. Hybrid rice technologies can help the nation to meet the future food demand. Although the country has an overwhelming demand for rice, farmers are not significantly adopting the high-yielding hybrid varieties. On the contrary, the popularity of hybrid rice is declining among the farmers. Researchers have identified that socio-economic reasons are the main causes behind low/no adoption. This article critically analyzes the reasons behind the low-level adoption of hybrid rice in Bangladesh and simultaneously, examines the successful experiences of China’s hybrid rice production. Finally, the study shows the future directions for hybrid rice improvements and adoption in the country.