Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in Periwinkle (Tympanostomus Spp) and Blue Crab (Callinectes amnicola) Harvested from a Perturbed Tropical Mangrove Forest in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

Oluowo Elohor Freeman, Olomukoro John Ovie

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/31568

The last decade in Nigeria saw useful scientific contributions in biomonitoring different environmental matrices and understanding their health indices, however with scanty toxicological evidences, especially their oxidative stress response and oxygen affinity. The present study was designed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in edible food of periwinkle and crab harvested from a perturbed river in Niger Delta, Nigeria reported to constantly receive industrial effluent from two major oil and gas companies. Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd and Mn were assessed for two seasons from December 2009 to May 2010. Higher concentrations of heavy metals were obtained in the wet season than dry with crab bio-accumulating more metals than periwinkle. The bioavailability sequence of metals in periwinkle was Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Cd and crab, Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>Cd. While Zn, Pb and Mn values in some of the stations in crab were above FAO/FEPA regulatory limits and Fe in Periwinkle above FAO/WHO during the wet season. The study has not only provided some useful information on metal accumulation in the icthyofauna of the river but call for more toxicological study and biomonitoring of anthropogenic sources to the river using crab and periwinkle.

Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in periwinkle and crab by estimating their spatial and seasonal mean variation in the individual animals and compare.

Study Design: The design is comparative analytic study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Ekpan Creek, Warri, Delta State, Nigeria, from December 2009 to May, 2010.

Methodology: Five sampling stations were carefully selected for their proximity to anthropogenic activities from December 2009 to May 2010, to cover wet and dry seasons sampling. Samples of periwinkle and crab species were hand-picked monthly, between the hours of 7 am and 9:30 am on each sampling day, when human activities in the river were still very minimal along the sampling stations into a black polythene bag containing ice for storage in deep freezer. Samples were identified using appropriate keys and striking features, digested and analyzed for heavy metals.

Results: The study results showed the dominance of iron over other metals in both animals for both seasons, and have been observed in previous studies. Chromium and Cadmium levels were relatively stable temporally throughout the study, which is somewhat lower at station 5, expected to be higher, and was attributed to water velocity and other reported physiochemical parameters, such as increasing temperature. Crab bio-accumulated more metals than periwinkle with reports of higher concentrations.

Conclusion: Continues perturbation of the river from anthropogenic activities has remain a major concern to the water use, unregulated activities by Chevron, WRPC and other oil & gas related activities as well as human activities has placed the abundance and consumption of shell fishes (periwinkle and crab) as food delicious in the region at high risk, coupled with previous report of contamination of investigated periwinkle sold in market places, including the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Cationic and Anionic Forms of Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth and Calcium, Zinc and Iron Content in Shoots of Two Varieties of Vegetable Amaranth

Munene Rozy, Changamu Evans, Korir Nicholas, P. Gweyi-Onyango Joseph

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/30907

Nitrogen (N) is an essential macro nutrient for plant growth and development. Plants absorb nitrogen in either ammonium (NH4+) or nitrate (NO3-) forms, which influence plant growth and absorption of nutrients in higher plants. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different N forms on growth and tissue content accumulation of mineral elements; calcium, zinc and iron in vegetable amaranth. The study was conducted in Agriculture Science and Technology Departmental farm of Kenyatta University between March and May, 2015. Three N forms used were; sole ammonium (NH4+) stabilized with Piadin® as nitrification inhibitor, sole nitrate (NO3-), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) (also stabilized with Piadin®) and control as subplots on two amaranth varieties were AB6 and AB7 as main plots in randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times in a split plot arrangement. Results indicated that ammonium treatment led to acidification of the rhizosphere compared to nitrate treatment, while nitrate nutrition led to a rise in rhizosphere pH. Nitrogen forms significantly (P=0.05) affected shoot and root dry weights and leaf area. Nitrate-treated plants accumulated shoot dry weight 3.7 fold in case of AB6 variety and 2.5 fold for AB7 variety as compared to control, while that of sole ammonium treatment was twofold for AB6 and 1.3 fold for AB7. Root dry weight reduced by 52% in AB6 and 46.7% in AB7 variety under ammonium treatment compared to nitrate treatment. Compared to the control, plants treated with nitrate-N form had leaf area four times higher while those treated with ammonium form were twice superior in both AB6 and AB7 varieties. Amaranths treated with sole nitrate markedly increased plant tissue (calcium, zinc and iron) concentrations compared to ammonium treated plants. Ammonium/nitrate mixture enhanced plant growth and mineral element concentration compared to sole ammonium treatment. It was therefore concluded that ammonium-induced pH acidification restricted plant biomass accumulation as well as calcium and zinc concentration compared with nitrate treatment which exhibited better growth in vegetable amaranth irrespective of variety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Canopy Characters and Light-Use Efficiency of Some Modern Wheat Varieties in Bangladesh

M. A. Awal, M. Ruhul Amin, M. Saidur Rhaman, Israt Jahan Shelley, M. Shahidur Rahman

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/31744

Aim: An experiment was conducted to analyze the canopy characters and light-use efficiency along with yield of five modern wheat varieties viz. BARI wheat-23, BARI wheat-24, BARI wheat-25, BARI wheat-26, and BARI wheat-27.

Study Design: The experiment was laid-out following a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the Crop Botany Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period extended from December 2013 to April 2014.

Methodology: Measurements included phenophase development, plant height, tiller production, leaf area development, light interception, dry matter accumulation, yield components, yield and harvest index.

Results: The wheat varieties exhibit  significant difference in phenological development, plant height, tiller production, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, light interception and use, yield and yield components like spike number/plant, spike length, grain number and weight per spike and thousand grain weight. The BARI wheat-24 and BARI wheat-25 varieties matured earlier than BARI wheat-27 or BARI wheat-26 by about a week while the remaining one matured in between. The BARI wheat-23 and BARI wheat-25 showed better performance and the BARI wheat-27 showed poor performance in all affairs of growth studied while the remaining others ranked intermediate. 

Conclusion: Higher light-use efficiency leads to greater accumulation of dry matter and higher grain yield is directly linked to their greater partitioning of biomass into the grains i.e. higher harvest index.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotypic Variation in Physiological Quality of Stored Cotton Seed

M. Abdus Salam, M. Moynul Haque, Md. Obaidul Islam, M. Nasir Uddin, Md. Nazmul Haque

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/31204

Seeds of five cotton genotypes viz., CB-8, BC-0236, SR-08, BC-0125 and BC-0252 were assessed to observe the effect of packing materials on physiological quality of cotton seed stored under ambient condition. The packaging materials were hermetically sealed polythene bag (thickness 8 μ) and cloth bag. Physiological quality of cotton seeds was assessed in the laboratory of Seed Science and Technology Unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh during May, 2009 to July, 2010. Results revealed that better physiological quality of cotton seeds was achieved by storing in hermetically sealed polythene bag instead of cloth bag. Moisture content of cotton seed increased rapidly in cloth bag upto 4 months. Afterwards, it decreased up to 10 months and then again increased slightly depending upon relative humidity of ambient condition. Contrary, moisture in seed of polythene bag remained more or less stable throughout the storage period. Excellent germinability (>80%) was observed in seeds of polythene bag as compare to cloth bag even after 14 months of storage. Considering genotypes, significant genotypic variation was found in all physiological traits of stored cotton seed. The genotype BC-0252 maintained the highest storability as it showed highest germination (83%) and vigour index (3167) with the lowest (6.47%) loss of seed weight at the end of storage.  The genotype BC-0252 therefore, could be useful in future breeding program for cotton improvement consistent with better seed quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity and Gender/Intra-Household Roles in Rice Production in Awka North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria

J. C. Iwuchukwu, I. C. Udegbunam

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/30824

The study ascertained productivity and gender/ intra-household roles in rice production in Awka North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria. Ninety farmers selected from three and nine town and village communities respectively constituted the respondents for the study. Data were analysed with percentage, mean score and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Findings show that majority (53.3%) of the respondents were females who were married (58.9%) with a mean household size of 6persons, mean farming experience of 14 years  and mean age of  40 years. Greater proportion (57.8%) engaged in farming as their primary occupation with a mean monthly income of 28,294.44 Naira. On average they owned 2.7hectares of land and cultivated 1.7 hectares of the land with rice. Their mean output and yield from rice production were 3.2tonnes and 1.4 tonnes/hectare respectively. Youths anchored most activities of rice production. Hence there is need  for  the government to enact policies and initiate programmes aimed at attracting youth to rice production and agriculture generally so as to reduce  restiveness among youths, channel their energy  and expertise  towards achieving food security as well as agriculture and economic growth and development.