Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sheep Manure and Phosphorus Fertiliser on Productivity of Snap Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Northern Rwanda

C. Bucagu, B. Ufitinema, D. Umutoniwabo, F. Niyitanga, A. Karangwa

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/32943

Aims: Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity is low in Rwanda. Investigations were carried out to assess the productivity of Snap bean using pot experiments.

Methodology: The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with seven (7) treatments: Compost (T0), Cow manure (T1), Sheep manure (T2), Compost with diammonium phosphate (DAP), DAP alone (T3), Cow manure with DAP (T4), Sheep manure with DAP (T5) and control (T6) on Andisol and Oxisol replicated three (3) times.

Results: The results showed that the pod yield was the highest in Andisol (2.39 tha-1) and the application of sheep manure significantly (P<.001) increased the leaf area, the number of leaves (P = .01) and the plant height (P= .01). The number of pods, the pod weight and the total pod yield were also significantly (P<.001) different between the fertilizer treatments and the soil types. Treatments with DAP (T3, T4 and T5) showed better development of the leaf area (231.50 cm2, 221.30 cm2 and 231.80 cm2 respectively), increased the number of leaves (9.67, 9.83 and 10.17 per plant respectively), the plant height (270.80 cm, 266.70 cm and 271.70 cm respectively), the number of pods (11.17, 11.33 and 13.33 per plant), the pod weight (10.68, 10.98 and 12.11 g plant-1) and the total pod yield (2.44 tha-1, 2.51 tha-1 and 3.31 tha-1 respectively). Agronomic efficiency (AE) was the highest in Andisol (5.17 kg of snap bean pod yield per kg nitrogen applied) and in pots that received sheep manure combined with DAP (6.52 kg of snap bean pod yield per kg nitrogen applied).

Conclusion: Use of sheep manure and DAP could be a potential option for fertilisation of snap bean in Northern Rwanda.

Open Access Original Research Article

Present Status of Low Depth Shrimp Farming System with Special Reference to Soil-water Characteristics in South-West Region of Bangladesh

Md. Motiur Rahman, Md. Ariful Islam, H. M. Rakibul Islam, Khan Kamal Uddin Ahmed

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/33404

Management of soil and water quality parameters is important catalysts for gaining sustainable fish production in Bangladesh. In this context, a comprehensive survey was done to categories existing shrimp farms locally called ghers of Sadar Upazilla covering each union based on water depth. Among the ghers, 69% found between 1.5 < to < 3 ft depth, 17% below ≤ 1.5 ft and 14% ≥ 3 ft. and an investigation was carried out to assess soil-water quality parameters and production performance of 9 selected low depth shrimp ghers in Bemarta Union under Sadar Upazilla at Bagerhat districts of Bangladesh over a growing cycle. Physico-chemical parameters of soil-water needed to be measured and analyzed by standard methods. Total yield (3414 kg/ha/cycle in T1, 2470 kg/ha/cycle in T2, 1482 kg/ha/cycle in T3) of fishes was also calculated from the stocking and harvesting data. Most of the parameters of soil and water correlated significantly with each other suggesting a high degree of interactions between different parameters in the system. A pattern of qualitative and quantitative difference of zooplankton over phytoplankton was also recorded in these farms Therefore, a high degree of salinity fluctuation and iron deposition in waters was also documented. However, considerably lower concentrations of phosphorus in the soil indicated a net retention and trapping of phosphatic nutrients in the environment. Moreover cropping pattern was two cycles (fishes single, paddy single) per year, feeding frequencies was once in daily and shrimp suitability and production ranged from (15-27)% and 247 kg/ha/cycle to 741 kg/ha/cycle. The present findings indicate that low depth gher comparatively gives a better result in fin fishes than shrimp/prawn and creates a hazardous environment for shrimp post larvae survives, viral death, health risk and economically not viable for sustainable shrimp production in Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Pod Husk Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth as a Biopesticide in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Production

O. O. Fayinminnu, O. O. Adeniyi, O. Y. Alabi, D. O. Omobusuyi

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/32529

Aims: This study evaluated potentials of aqueous extract of pod husk of Parkia biglobosa as a biopesticide in okra production.

Study Design: The study employed a radomized complete block design with seven treatments (5, 10, 15 and 20% Parkia biglobosa aqueous pod husk extract (PPHE), 2.5 ml dimethoate + cypermethrin (D+C) – recommended, 5.0 ml (D+C), control – 500 ml of water) and replicated three times.

Place and Duration of Study: Crop Garden of Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan (7° 34’N and 3° 54’E) between April and July 2016.

Methodology: The leaves, seeds, pod husks and bark of Parkia biglobosa were collected, authenticated and analyzed for their phytochemical compositions using standard procedures. Aqueous extract of the pod husk of the plant (PPHE) was found to contain the highest phytochemicals qualitatively and quantitatively which formed the basis of using it as a biopesticide.  A field study was conducted at the crop garden of Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, to assess the potency of the extract as a biopesticide and a synthetic insecticide - Dimethoate 14.5% + Cypermethrin 5.5% (D+C) on the management of flea beetles on NHAe-47-4 okra variety. The  seven treatments (5, 10, 15 and 20% Parkia biglobosa aqueous pod husk extract (PPHE), 2.5 ml dimethoate + cypermethrin (D+C) – recommended, 5.0 ml (D+C) (synthetic), control – 500 ml of water) were applied weekly on okra plants from two Weeks After Sowing (WAS) till 12 WAS. Data were collected on growth and yield parameters, dry matter accumulation of A. esculentus and flea beetle populations. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at P = 0.05.

Results: Results revealed that treatment 20% PPHE had relatively higher values of growth parameters which compared favorably (p≤0.05) with 2.5 ml and 5 ml (D+C). Yield parameters; Number of fruits and fruit weights from 20%PPHE also compared favorably with 2.5 ml and 5 ml (D+C) with no significant difference (P>0 .05) and with the same trend in dry root weight. While the dry shoot weight of 2.5 ml (D+C) treatment (p≤0.05) was different from other treatments. The control treatment however, revealed significant differences (p<0.05) in having reduced growth and low yield when compared with the treated plots.

Conclusion: This study showed the efficacy and potency of Parkia biglobosa aqueous pod husk extract (PPHE) in suppressing the flea beetles due to its highest quantities of phytochemicals. The 20% concentration also enhanced the growth and yield of okra and performed relatively well with the recommended dose (2.5 ml) of D+C. The aqueous pod husk extract, therefore could serve as a biopesticide for food sustainability and safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dog Ecology and Management in Niger State, Nigeria: A Basic Tool for Rabies Control

A. Garba, A. A. Dzikwi, H. M. Kazeem, O. A. Makanju, F. O. Hambagba, N. O. Abduazeez, I. P. Ekeh_Chinedu, A. B. Tirmidhi, S. E. Hambolu, J. U. Umoh

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/32442

Aims: To examine the dog ecology and management as it relates to the control of rabies in Niger State, Nigeria.

Study Design:  Questionnaire based survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Structured questionnaires on dog ecology and management were administered in Niger State of Nigeria between January and March 2012.

Methodology: Structured questionnaires on dog ecology and management comprising of 4 sections, were administered to 300 adult participants between the ages of 18-70 years using systematic randomization; 237 questionnaires were returned. Descriptive statistics using the SAS statistical package were employed to analyze the data.

Results: Results indicated that there was a population ratio of 1:5.4 dogs to humans and 1:1.9 female to male dog ratio with an estimated 732,476 dog population in Niger State. Most of the dogs (58.6%) in the state were kept for security reasons and that majority of the dogs strayed at night (52.4%) and evenings (23.8%) into homes across the state. About 52% of dogs were not confined and responsibility for dogs in terms of welfare, mostly (61.5%) lied on everybody in the family and 61% of dogs were fed on family left overs. About 30.4% of dogs were never vaccinated and 31% of the respondents (or their family members) have been inflicted with a dog bite, but only 28.1% of cases received post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). For those humans that were bitten, about 13.8% resulted in death.

Conclusion: Due to free roaming and irregular vaccination of dogs in the state; there is bound to be increased dog bite cases/rabies spread. This study concludes that dogs were not catered for as expected in the state and that employment of dog ecological studies before any rabies control programmes, will explore necessary data for planning the programme in Niger State of Nigeria. Improvement and employment of dog ecological studies across states for rabies control programmes in Nigeria and W/Africa is hereby recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sea Water Intrusion and Surface Water Salinity and Its Influence on Irrigation Water Quality in Ramisi Area, Kenya

A. Chalala, L. M. Chimbevo, J. M. Kahindo, M. M. Awadh, J. B. Malala

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/16642

Cane growing is one of the major economic activities in Ramisi, Kwale County besides tourisms and fishing. Although Ramisi Sugar Factory has been defunct for long previously, it has been reinstated and now christened Kwale International Sugar Company Limited (KISCOL). Coast region experience erratic rainfall patterns and limited agricultural land ownership therefore rain fed agriculture is not suitable. The major rivers to supplement experienced unpredictable rainfall patterns in the region are River Ramisi and Mkurumudzi. However, river Ramisi is saline, highly mineralized and unsuitable for domestic and agricultural use according to this study. The river is also affected by seawater intrusion during high tides. KISCOL drilled 37 boreholes to bridge the water demand gap for its operations but the water quality is doubtful due to intrusion effects. The aim of the study was to determine the suitability of water sources in Ramisi in terms of salinity and contaminant levels, risk of salt water intrusion and microbial load. Water samples were purposefully collected from drilled boreholes, River Ramisi and Mkurumudzi then analyzed for organic constituent parameters (pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and electrical conductivity). The Physical parameters included; (Turbidity, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, chlorides and salinity, free carbon dioxide, sulphates, metals) and microbial load using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater quality (21st Edition) at the Kwale Water and Sewerage Company laboratories in Kwale County, and at the Coast Water Services Board laboratories in Mombasa County. The pH of the water sources ranged from 6.5 to 8.5 with exceeding limits for conductivity, chlorides, TDS, turbidity (25 NTU) and TDS (1,237.6667 mg/l). Magnesium, Iron, Sodium and Potassium and nutrients were below the permissible levels for irrigation water. Thus river Mkurumudzi and groundwater sources are not at risk of sea water intrusion, but river Ramisi is suffering from the effects of sea water intrusion during high tides and is unsuitable for cane irrigation and probably any other crop. Most surface water sources were contaminated with total coliforms including E. coli hence not suitable for domestic use.