Open Access Original Research Article

Pollen Album of Rhizophora Members in Nigeria and Its Taxonomic Implications

J. K. Ebigwai, A. A. Egbe, B. L. Nyannanyo, B. A. Ngele

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/33497

Pollen samples of Rhizophora individuals in Nigeria Niger Delta were conducted to generate a pollen album. Samples were collected in permanent plots in Koko, Ogidigben (Delta State), Akakumama, Nembe (Bayelsa State), Olupiri-Epelema, Ugwede (Rivers State), Ikwe, Opolom (Akwa Ibom State), Adiabo Ukanabio and Esighi (Cross River State) between 2013 - 2016. A total of three hundred and sixty four (364) Rhizophorapollen samples were obtained from the sea water-land interfaces to 604 meters inland (maximum Rhizophora occurrence landward). The samples were prepared using standard Erdtmanian methods. The result showed the presence of five different shapes of tricolporate pollen. The exine sculptures were baculate, rugulate, striate and reticulate while the pollen shapes were either sub prolate, prolate or oblate. The polar shapes were circular in Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) 1 and 4, triangular in OTUs 2 and 3 and trilobate in OTU5. The grain arrangements for all five OTUs were monad. When this data was normalized and converted to numerical taxonomy using Euclidean distance, a loose relationship was observed between OTUs 1 and 2 suggesting distinct species.  Although, OTUs 3, 4 and 5 showed statistical difference (0.05 confidence limit) among themselves, analysis revealed no statistical difference to OTU 1 and 2, implying them as subtypes of either OTU.  The finding is in contrast to the widely held notion that only three putative Rhizophora species exist in Nigeria. Edaphic and genetic research of the two inferred species and three subtypes should be conducted.


Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Changes in Field-to-storage Insect-pests of Maize and Implications for Their Control in South-Western Cameroon

Divine Nsobinenyui, Nelson N. Ntonifor, Eric B. Fokam

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/35378

Aims: To identity and assess the seasonal population dynamics of field-to-store insect-pests of maize at various harvesting dates in South-western Cameroon.

Methodology: Maize was planted mid-monthly during the rainy season months of 2014 and 2015 in 16 plots. At physiological maturity 2 cobs per plot were harvested weekly. The harvesting was for four weeks for maize planted from March to May and five weeks for those planted from August to October. The different insects were assessed from maize cobs with intact husk at harvest, during de-husking after one month drying and subsequently during incubation at two and four weeks. Insect-pests from intact and bird-induced damaged cobs at harvest were also compared.

Results: The results showed that Cryptolestes ferrugineusSitophilus zeamaisEphestia cautella and Sitotroga cerealella were the major field-to-store insect-pests at harvest. C. ferrugineus was  present during all the months of harvest, S. zeamais only in cobs harvested during the dry season months of November, December and January while E. cautella and S. cerealella though present throughout the year showed a slight increase during the months of the dry season. As concerns harvest dates, the longer maize stayed in the field post physiological maturity, the higher the population of S. zeamais and C. ferrugineus while E. cautella and S. cerealella did not vary significantly. Cobs damaged by birds had significantly higher numbers of C. ferrugineus and S. zeamais compared to intact maize cobs while E. cautella and S. cerealella did not show any difference between the damaged and intact maize cobs.  

Conclusion: Harvesting maize early and separating bird-induced damaged cobs from intact ones can therefore minimize stored insect-pest numbers and grain losses in storage.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Black-Headed Oriole Oriolus brachyrhynchus (Swainson, 1837) as Bioindicator of Arsenic Contamination Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)

F. A. Egwumah, P. O. Egwumah, B. T. Tyowua

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/35338

An evaluation of Black-headed oriole Oriolus brachyrhynchus as bioindicator of arsenic contamination using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) was carried out to determine the bioaccumulation level of arsenic concentration in the liver, skin, heart, adult feathers, nestling feathers, and eggs so as to ascertain which of these parts harbours more contaminants. A total of 30 birds were trapped from different farm locations in Buruku, Daudu and Adega using mist net and 150 of parts were obtained. A total of 9 eggs and 9 nestling were also collected from different nest from the study locations for investigation. We also examined the crops foraged on, and the water and soil of the environment. Summary statistics of Arsenic concentration (mg/kg) in selected parts were expressed using descriptive statistics and correlation. Arsenic concentration in feathers of the said species ranged between 1.29- 2.49 mg/kg with Daudu having the highest mean of 1.84 ± 0.42 mg/kg, whereas Buruku and Adega have below detection limit of 0.001 µg/L. Arsenic concentration in the liver of Black headed oriole ranged between 0.28 – 1.57 mg/kg with the birds in Daudu having the highest mean of 0.70 ± 0.47 mg/kg. Arsenic concentration in the skin ranged between 0.19 – 0.79 mg/kg with the birds in Daudu having the highest mean of 0.46 ± 0.21 mg/kg. Consequently arsenic concentration in carcass of Black headed oriole ranged between 0.28 – 3.42 mg/kg with the birds in Daudu having the highest mean of 2.47 ± 0.94 mg/kg. In addition, arsenic concentration in eggs and nestling feathers ranged between 0.04 – 0.05 mg/kg and 1.29 – 2.22 mg/kg with Daudu having highest arsenic concentration in both parts with mean of 0.05± 0.01 mg/kg and 1.63 ± 0.51 mg/kg respectively. Arsenic content of maize obtained from Daudu ranged between 0.46 - 0. 66 mg/kg with Daudu having the highest arsenic content with mean of 0.53 ± 0.11 mg/kg. In addition, arsenic content of soil ranged between 2.95 – 23.98 mg/kg with mean of 23.83 ± 0.14 mg/kg. Arsenic content of water ranged between 0.02 – 0.06 mg/kg. Therefore Daudu has the highest arsenic content in soil and water as a component of biological pathway for both crop plants and birds. The concentration of arsenic in different parts of the birds is a function of different time of exposure of individual bird trapped from different location, while arsenic levels in the feathers is an indicator of diet. It is imperative to study the potential mechanism by which arsenic cause diseases in wild birds which may be applicable to bird’s conservation to promote the conservation of wild birds and other animals especially species that are endanger and threaten. Therefore, analysis of mercury, lead, chromium and cadmium should be carried out to determine their accumulation in organs of Black headed oriole since these communities are agrarian communities. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Mycorrhizal Inoculation (VAM) and Phosphorus Levels on Yield, Quality, Nutrient Uptake and Post Harvest Nutrient Status of Sunflower

C. Kalaiyarasan, S. Jawahar, M. V. Sriramachandrasekharan, R. Ramesh

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/35303

The field experiment was conducted to study the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation (VAM) and different levels of phosphorus (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kg/ha) on yield, quality, nutrient uptake and post-harvest nutrient status of hybrid sunflower cv. sunbred. The experiment was conducted in factorial randomized block design with two replications. The treatments consisted of 5 levels of P2O5 applied in the presence or absence of VAM inoculates. The results of experiment revealed that mycorrhizal inoculated plants produced maximum seed and stalk yield, oil content, oil yield, protein content, nutrient uptake than non mycorrhizal inoculation while nutrient availability were maximum in non mycorrhizal inoculation. Among the various phosphorus levels tried, P2O5 at 100 kg ha-1 recorded the maximum values for yield, quality, nutrient uptake while P2O5at 0 kg ha-1 registered maximum NPK availability over other levels. With regard to interaction effect, mycorrhizal inoculation with 100 kg ha-1 of P2O5 recorded maximum values for yield, quality and nutrient uptake of sunflower but it was on par with mycorrhizal inoculation with P2O5 at 75 kg ha-1. Non-mycorrhizal inoculation without P2O5 application recorded maximum values for post-harvest nutrient status of sunflower. Lowest values of yield, quality and nutrient uptake were recorded by non-mycorrhizal inoculation without P2O5. Mycorrhizal inoculation with P2O5 at 100 kg ha-1 recorded minimum values for post-harvest nutrient status of Sunflower.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Lime on Growth and Yield of Mucuna flagellipes (Vogel ex Hook) in an Acid Tropical Ultisol

O. A. Agba, J. E. Asiegbu, E. E. Ikenganyia, M. A. N. Anikwe, T. E. Omeje, J. O. Adinde

Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JAERI/2017/22741

The effects of lime (calcium carbonate) on the growth and yield of Mucuna flagellipes were studied in 2012 and 2013 cropping season respectively at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Agronomy, Cross River University of Technology, Cross River State, Nigeria. The experiment had six rates of calcium carbonate (0.0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 4 0 t ha-1) laid out in randomized complete block design with six replications. Calcium carbonate significantly (p < 0.05) increased the number of leaves per plant, number of branches per plant, nodules, vine length, leaf area index and dry matter of plant fractions. Soils amended with calcium carbonate shortened the period to anthesis, pod set, and increased the number of inflorescences, flowers and pod yield per plant. Calcium carbonate at the rate of 2.5 t ha-1 significantly (p < 0.05) reduced pod abortion, number of pods without seeds and produced the highest seed yield  of 2.82 t ha-1 and 2.80 t ha-1 in 2012 and 2013 cropping season respectively. Farmers should cultivate Mucuna flagellipes with the application of 2.0 t ha-1or 2.5 t ha-1 of calcium carbonate under an acid tropical ultisol as obtained in Obubra condition.