Anthropogenic activities were and will remain one of the most influential factors driving environmental changes. Human induced changes can reflect political, social, economic and ecological conditions prevailing an area in general or over a certain period of time. Three remotely sensed satellite images with a time lapse of fourteen years period of time (2003 – 2017) were obtained and investigated to detect changes that took place during that period and the ecological implications of these transformations. Satellite images were atmospherically and geometrically corrected. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was calculated for all images. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were applied to identify different environments. Change detection techniques were used to detect alterations in different surfaces. Results were combined and compared to previous studies of the same study area. Six classes were recognized and the overall changes showed that vegetation, water bodies and urban are increasing while salt marshes, sabkhas and barren soils are decreasing. However, changes are unequally distributed all over the whole oasis. Anthropogenic activities are the major trigger of all detected changes where the irrational use of water, lack of drainage system is intensively affecting all environments of Siwa Oasis. The present study expects the further expansion of the current water bodies which may escalate salinity problem with accumulating more salts in the soils of Siwa Oasis. Vegetation cover is also increasing and according to the results it is going to increase more in parallel with water bodies. Combination of our results and previous results during the period from 1987 to 2003 have confirmed our results and showed a clearer trends for the changing course in the major environments. Water management and raise of awareness should solve the problem of water bodies expansion and restrain the intensification of many of Siwa Oasis ecological problems.
Sustainable processing of tomato fruits depends on the availability of high yielding varieties, suitable for mechanical harvest and handling. Efforts in addressing the postharvest challenges of handling tomato fruits, have placed great emphasis on cultivating varieties with improved processing qualities. Field experiments were conducted in the early seasons of years 2014 and 2015, to examine the yield and processing qualities of tomato fruits as influenced by fertilizer type, using determinate and indeterminate varieties. The experiment was a Randomized Complete Block Design in a split-plot arrangement, replicated three times. Two tomato varieties (Roma VF and Beske) constituted the main plot while six fertilizer types (poultry manure, cow dung, NPK, poultry manure + NPK, cow dung + NPK and the control) constituted the sub-plot. The sub-plot size was 2.0 m x 3.0 m. Biochemical and proximate analyses were carried out on fruits from each treatment. Data collected on vegetative, reproductive and yield as well as the, proximate and biochemical properties were subjected to analysis of variance. Irrespective of the fertilizer type, tomato varieties differed in number of days to first and 50% flowering, days to maturity, number of fruits and fruit yield as well the processing parameters evaluated. These processing qualities are highly determined by the variety of tomato planted as well as fertilizers. Application of poultry manure (5 t/ha) + NPK 15:15:15 (150 kg/ha) enhanced high fruit TSS while sole poultry manure (10 t/ha) enhanced high lycopene content. It is concluded that the processing quality traits of tomato fruits would be mainly affected by the variety, thus it is established that Roma VF is a processing tomato variety. Beske is recommended for high fruit yield targeted at fresh market utilization, while Roma VF is recommended as a processing tomato variety.
The study was carried out to determine the marketing channel, utilization and the marketing efficiency of Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu kernels ‘ogbono’ in Ado-Ekiti Metropolitan Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Data for marketing were collected from the whole population (61) of ‘ogbono’ sellers from two major markets while for the utilization of ‘ogbono’ 300 households were haphazardly sampled in the study area. Data were collected through the administration of semi-structured questionnaire and interview. The data collected were analyzed using Descriptive statistics; Percentage mention was used for ranking while Gross Margin Ratio (GMR) was used to estimate the marketing efficiency of ‘ogbono’. Marketing channel for ‘ogbono’ revealed seven stages from the producer to the final consumer while the categories of ‘ogbono’ traders were village merchants, middlemen, wholesalers and retailers. The utilization of ‘ogbono’ as soup condiment ranked highest with 91.7% while its utilization in treating burns and as anti-venom in treating snake bites ranked 2nd and 3rd with 18.3% and 13.3% respectively. The estimated GMR that was used to determine the marketing efficiency of ‘ogbono’ in Ado-Ekiti was 26.4%. The GMR showed that there were impediments to the marketing efficiency of ‘ogbono’ since it was slightly higher than the prevailing bank interest rate of 24%. The major problems limiting ‘ogbono’ marketing was non- availability of ‘ogbono’ which ranked first with 90.2%, followed by transportation problem with 86.9%, fund ranked third with 83.6% while storage ranked the least with 11.5%., In order to reduce the scarcity of ‘ogbono’ in the study area, there is the need to encourage farmers to plant Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu; while government should ensure good road between farm-settlements and main markets to facilitate the transportation of ‘ogbono’ by the processors. This will reduce the number of middlemen while improving the marketing efficiency.
The study of nutritional composition of African giant land snail (Archachatina marginata) fed on diet from different protein sources: soya bean meal, fish meal and blood meal with Pawpaw leaves and pumpkin leaves serving as the controls was carried out in the Wildlife domestication unit of the Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University of Benin, Benin City. One hundred and twenty (120) snails of average weight of between 110 and 120 g were used. Eight (8) treatments (T1-T8) were established and the snails were separated in groups of fifteen (15) snails per treatment. Each group was randomly fed one of the eight diets. There were three (3) replicates per treatment with five (5) snails per replicate in a completely randomized experimental design. Twenty four (24) plastic baskets measuring 20 cm deep, 37.5 cm long and 23.8 cm wide were used to house the snails with each plastic basket containing five (5) snails. At the termination of the 12 weeks experiment, proximate analysis, mineral composition and heavy metal composition of the snail flesh were carried out. The results revealed that the crude protein content of the different treatments were significantly different (p<0.05). Results showed that Crude protein value was the highest in treatment 7 (87.5%) and the lowest in treatment 1 (61.25%) and treatment 5 (63.00%). The snails fed with protein sources also had higher crude protein than those fed with only leaves. The results of the mineral profile showed that the Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorus of the different treatment were significantly different (p<0.05). Treatment 2 recorded the highest value (mg/kg) in Calcium (59.00) and Magnesium (71.00) while Treatment 7 had the least value in Calcium (13.0) and Treatment 1 and Treatment 8 had the least values in Magnesium (25.0). The result of the heavy metals showed that the Copper, Zinc and Lead of the different treatment were significantly different (p<0.05).
It was concluded that the snails fed on diet from different protein sources such as blood meal, fish meal and soya bean meal had higher crude protein content and also performed better than the snails fed with only leaves such as pawpaw leaves and pumpkin leaves.
Aims: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of varying levels of Cassia tora on the performance of rabbits.
Study Design: Mention the design of the study here.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, the experiment last for three months between the months of March to June.
Methodology: The experiment was set in a completely randomized design (CRD) with level of Cassia tora as treatments. The animals were fed diets containing 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% inclusion levels of C. tora in a completely randomised design replicated six times. Data were collected for 12 consecutive weeks on feed intake and live weight gain.
Results: Growth performance of the rabbits were not significant across the treatments, except for the final body weight and average daily gain being higher in treatment 4 compare to other treatments. Carcass evaluation shows significant difference in dressing percentage, weight of kidney and small intestine.
Conclusion: It was concluded that up to 7.5% of C. tora can be incorporated in the diet of rabbits without any deleterious effect on the performance of rabbits.