This is the first report of natural infestation of fruit flies Anastrepha grandis Macquart (Tephritidae) and Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal on bottle gourd [Lagenariasiceraria (Mol.) Standl.] and mogango (Cucurbitapepo L.). Six cultivars of Cucurbitaceae were susceptible to infestation by A. grandis and their larvae reach pupation and adult emergence. The average weight of pupae was similar between zucchini, squash 'Menina Brasileira' and mogango. Orange pumpkin and 'Atlas' butternut showed the lowest average weight of pupae and their sampled pupae showed similarity of weight by Morisita index. The pupal viability ranged from 57.5% to 95.8%.
The broad objective of this study was to determine the optimal resource allocation in integrated fish-based farming (IFF) system in Kaduna metropolis of Nigeria. Primary data were generated and used for the study. The data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to one hundred and thirty eight (138) fish-based farmers and were analyzed using linear programming model. The results of the linear programming model shows that resource allocation of integrated fish-based farming system showed that the mean labour input (131 man days) utilized in fish-vegetable farming was the highest among the three categories. Integrated fish-pig farming had the highest input of fingerlings with a mean of 3150. The results of the optimal base plan shows that the three integrated fish-based farming activities (decision variables) entered the final fish-based farming plan/solution as they had zero reduced cost (opportunity cost), indicating that these enterprises were in the best competitive positions. Finally, results of the resource use efficiency indicated that Day-old chicks, number of piglets and pond size were the limiting (binding) resources. The resources that were not binding were labour, number of fingerlings, feeds, drugs, lime, seeds, fertilizer, pesticides and pen size. It is therefore, suggested that some of the labour being employed be channel to non-agricultural sectors for productive use, feeds and drugs usage be minimized and excess be used for expansion of the farm and other related enterprises.
Aim: To investigate the effect of different priming pretreatments and durations on germination of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) seeds.
Study Design: Completely randomized design with 3 treatments replicated four times at different priming durations.
Place and Duration: Seed Science Laboratory - Department of Seed, Crop and Horticulture Science, University of Eldoret during May 2017.
Methodology: The treatments were hydro priming with water for 24 and 48 hours, halo priming with 2% potassium nitrate (KNO3) for 24 and 48 hours, osmopriming with 10% Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 600 for 24 and 48 hours. After treatment the seeds were re-dried and the subjected to a germination test using blotter method in a germination chamber. Number of germinated seeds was counted on 28th day. Seedling evaluation was also done.
Results: Hydropriming with water for 48 hours gave the highest germination percentage. Seed priming with 10% PEG gave the highest number of normal seedlings at both 24 and 48 hours. Priming with KNO3 gave the lowest germination percentage with the highest number of dead seeds and abnormal seedlings. Control had the highest number of hard seeds.
Conclusion: Farmers can improve germination of parsley seeds by hydropriming for 48 hours. This method is easy to carry out and does not require expensive chemicals like PEG. However, use of 10% PEG for priming gave the highest number of normal seedlings which are likely to survive under field conditions. Further investigations can be done on the effect of different concentrations of Potassium nitrate and PEG.
This study was designed to evaluate the proximate composition and feeding value of rumen digesta filtrate (RDF) fermented earth ball meal on finisher broilers. The RDF was prepared by weighing 1kg of the fresh rumen digesta into a bucket containing one litre of water, stirred, filtered and incubated for 48 hours. The incubated RDF was used to ferment earth ball which had been previously grated into paste. After fermentation, the RDF and water fermented earth ball meals were sundried and their proximate composition determined. Five broiler finisher diets were formulated, using RDF fermented earth ball meal to replace maize in the control diet at four levels. One hundred and fifty, 28 days old broiler birds were divided into five groups and each assigned to one of the five diets in a completely randomized design and fed for 28 days. Water and RDF fermentation medium increased (P<0.05) the crude protein content of the earth ball meal from 3.06% to 7.33 and 5.21%, respectively. The gross energy was reduced to 2.28 kcal/g by water fermentation media, while the crude fibre was reduced by RDF media to 9.64%. Water fermentation reduced the concentration of nitrogen free extract to 51.26%. The ether extract digestibility increased significantly from 54.17% in birds on control diet to 68.47% in birds fed 10% RDF earth ball meal diet. The cost of producing a kilogram of control diet (₦132.98) was higher relative to treatment diets (₦115.49- ₦118.86). Birds fed treatment diets had the lowest cost of feed consumption (₦ 14.54 - ₦16.70) relative to those on control diet (₦ 19.22). It was relatively cheaper to produce a kilogram of meat on diet containing 10% RDF fermented earth ball meal. It was concluded that RDF fermented earth ball meal could replace maize at 20% in broiler finisher’s diet, during maize scarcity.
Domestication of Grewia coriacea Mast. (Malvaceae) threatened to disappear in Lefini Basin requires looking for vegetable growth conditions of their seeds. The study is initiated to evaluate the effect of the substrate on vegetative growth of the seedlings from germination of the pretreated stones. Whole fruits harvested on 5 trees choosed in natural forest and entire stones resulting from decortication are material used for germination tests. Obtained stones were immersed in boiling water and nitric acid at 65% as well as scarification of their teguments made by using an abrasive paper. The stones grew in pots containing sand and mould. The following parameters are evaluated for the resulting seedlings: stems height, collet diameters, plastochrone, number of leaves, internodes, ramifications and roots length. Height of seedling growing on the mould is higher than that of those developing on the sand whatever the treatments. Height of stems resulting from the whole fruits is inferior to 6.3 cm compared to untreated stones, stones immersed in nitric acid at 65% during 15 min and that the scarified stones on mould and sand. Collet of seedlings developing on sand has a diameter of 0.47 cm compared to that of the seedlings developing in the mould which is 0.43 cm. On the two substrates, seedlings resulting from scarified stones, entire stones and those resulting from stones treated in the nitric acid and developing on sand and mould which have the most leaves, internodes, ramification and roots length compared with that recorded on entire fruits. Stones immersed in 65% nitric acid during 15 min and from the scarified stones present better height of the stems, a more significant collet diameter, a high leaves number, internodes and the stems ramification. On mould, the seedlings resulting from stones treated present a better vegetative growth compared to those of the sand.