Manure is a rich nutrient source in crop production. It contains essential nutrients needed by crop for growth and development. One of the challenges of manure nutrient contents determination is obtaining representative samples of manure for nutrient analysis. This is attributed to the differences in the manure handling method, type of storage structures, application method, and physical state of the manure and livestock management system. A representative manure sample is needed to provide an accurate reflection of the nutrient content. This paper examined the physical classifications of organic manure, highlighting the solid, liquid, and semi solid state of manure, when to sample organic manure for nutrient analysis in crop production especially during land application and also elucidate on sample preparations for nutrient analysis.
This study determined the growth and yield of Solanum lycopersicum in heavy metal contaminated soil and the heavy metal uptake of the harvested S. lycopersicum fruit. Experimental pots containing 3000 g of sterilized soil was used for this experiment whereby 60 sample pots were used with various treatments in this study. Solanum lycopersicum seeds were raised in the nursery for a period of 3 weeks and treatments applied just before transplanting into the experimental pots. The plants were left for a week so as to be established properly and overcome transplanting shock before watering with the contaminated stream water. Heavy metal analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) method was carried out on the contaminated stream water to determine the amount of heavy metal in the stream water before the commencement of the experiment. The contaminated stream water was applied to the pots in measured quantities; 0, 5 and 0%. Growth and yield data from the experiment were obtained and the results were subjected to ANOVA and descriptive analysis. The results showed that heavy metals were present in high concentration in the stream water sample. The values of the heavy metals in the stream water sample used for watering were Iron – 138.15 mg/L, Zinc – 68.4 mg/L, Lead – 7.89 mg/L and Copper – 8.98 mg/L. The effect of P. aeruginosa were found to be more pronounced among all the treatments as it enhanced the growth and yield of the plants when compared with other treatments. Also, tomato plants with T. harzianum inoculation had higher mean plant height of 66.7 ± 2.3 cm, higher number of leaves 78.0 ± 8.0 and leaf area of 77.5 ± 4.5 cm2. Highest fruit yield was produced in tomato plants treated with P. aeruginosa at 5% and 10% level of contaminated stream water sample concentration. The study concluded that the use of contaminated stream water for irrigation could be a potential source of heavy metals in tomato. However, inoculation of microorganisms for the treatment of the heavy metal contaminated sites was effective for increased health, growth and yield of tomato fruits.
The goal of this paper was to evaluate the influence of the shading levels in a silvopastoral system on the association of anatomical structures with nutritional parameters and gas production of Poaceae species. Plants of two forage species (Panicum maximum cv. Mombasa and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu) were exposed to three shading levels (full sun, 25 and 50%). The shading was arranged in contiguous bands, and treatments were allocated in a completely randomized design with four replications. Leaf blades were measured for parenchyma thickness (mesophyll), vascular bundle components (metaxylem and metaphloem), vascular bundle sheath, sclerenchymatic sheath, sclerenchymatic cap, sclerenchymatic extension, and epidermis secondary growth. In addition, measures of NDF and ADF contents, gas production, and dry matter degradability at 96 h incubation were also obtained. The results were subjected to t-test at 5% and correlation analysis for each genotype and shading level. The proportion of lignifying tissues such as secondary wall thickening and sclerenchyma was reduced under shading on an average of 66% and 60%, respectively. The proportions of metaphloem in Mombasa and Marandu grasses under the full sun were 5.5% and 3.7%, respectively. However, this response was reversed with shading, reducing the proportion of metaphloem in Mombasa. Gas production in shaded Marandu grasses was higher than was in Mombasa grasses because of the higher proportion of metaphloem. Considering the anatomical traits and gas production for shaded plants, Marandu grass showed the highest dry matter degradability if compared to Mombasa.
Crop residues are overlooked when making fertilizer recommendations, yet have potential to contribute to soil nitrogen in addition to mineral fertilizer use. A study was carried out in western Kenya to establish the contribution of soybean residues under varied management options and nitrogen fertilizer rates on nitrogen supply to subsequent sorghum crop. Six soybean residue management options were evaluated; sole sorghum, sorghum + soybean left to maturity, sorghum + soybean mulched, sorghum + soybean incorporated, sorghum + soybean exsitu and sorghum + soybean exsitu and plot tilled. Three levels of nitrogen (0 kg N ha-1, 40 kg N ha-1, and 80 kg N ha-1) as urea were applied as top-dress and treatments arranged in randomized complete block design. Soybean left to maturity at 40 kg N ha-1 indicated significant (P < 0.001) increase (56%) in soil NO3-N. Removal of soybean residues resulted in significantly (P < 0.001) lower soil NO3-N increase while control treatment and sole sorghum indicated the lowest soil NO3-N accumulation irrespective of nitrogen fertilizer rates. Soybean left to maturity indicated significant (P < 0.001) increase (43%) in leaf NO3-N accumulation at 40 kg N ha-1 while treatments with soybean residues mulched showed 39% increase and those with residues incorporated, 25% increase. Soybean residues ex-situ and ex-situ and till indicated a decrease (-6% and -7%) in leaf NO3-N accumulation, respectively. Sole sorghum had a uniform NO3-N increase of 4% irrespective of nitrogen fertilizer rates. It was observed that insitu soybean residues and nitrogen fertilizer application had no significant (P < 0.05) influence on sorghum yield. In conclusion, soil and leaf NO3-N accumulation by soybean residues in addition to nitrogen fertilizer does not translate to optimum nor potential research sorghum yields. There is need to research on sulphur and nitrogen to establish their interactive effects on sorghum yields.
The field work was carried out at the Screenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of water and methanolic sunflower leaf extract as a fertilizer sources to improve growth and yield of tomato. The experiment consisted of six treatments which are sterilized soil with tomato, unsterilized soil with tomato, water sunflower extract with tomato in sterilized soil, water sunflower extract with tomato in unsterilized soil, methanolic sunflower leaf extract with tomato in sterilized soil and methanolic sunflower leaf extract with tomato in unsterilized soil. Treatments were in triplicate and arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD). Twelve pots, each containing three kilograms of top soil were used in consideration to the planting duration. One hundred (100) ml of sunflower leaf extracts was added to each of the treatments except the controls.
The growth results at Nine weeks after planting showed that leaf area and vine length was significantly higher in treatment with sunflower methanolic extract in sterilized soil with mean of 78.87 cm2 while girth size and vine length were significantly higher in the control treatment with sterilized soil. The yield results showed that the treatment with methanolic sunflower in sterilized soil had 8 fruits at harvest while the least number of fruit was in treatment of methanolic sunflower in unsterilized soil which had one fruit. The treatment with water extract of sunflower with unsterilized soil had the highest fruit weight of 1.2 gram while the treatment with methanolic sunflower extract with unsterilized soil had the least value of 0.066 gram which was lower than the controls. The diameter of fruit showed that the treatment with methanolic sunflower extract with sterilized soil had the highest value with mean of 25.4 cm while treatment with methanolic sunflower extract in unsterilized had the least with mean of 6.5 cm. Nitrogen and potassium level in the post planting soil were reduced almost all across the treatments. Soil calcium increased in the post planting soil as well as the pH. The experiment concludes that methanolic sunflower extract improves soil fertility.