The potential effect of florivory on donation and deposition of pollen in Ipomoea imperati was studied. Three different levels of flowering damage (0%, 25%, and 75%) were applied to emasculated and non-emasculated flowers and the number of pollen donated and deposited was measured. It was found that there are significant differences in pollen donation and reception between flowers with 75% damage compared to the control and flowers with 25% damage. It is concluded that the florivory has a negative effect on pollen transport of Ipomoea imperati. This negative effect could be associated with a change in visiting patterns and behavior of the pollinators.
Livelihood activities among rural wetlands dwellers in Rivers State, Nigeria were assessed to determine their constraints and impact on the wetlands ecosystem services of Nigeria.
The state is one of the 36 states located in the south-south region of Nigeria, and on Latitude 4°451 N and longitude 6° 501 E. The study was conducted between November 2015, and July 2016, which is constituted the beginning and the end of wetland cultivation in the study area.
Multi-stage random sampling based on purposive and simple sampling procedure using a structured questionnaire of both closed and open-ended was used to generate the primary data. Simple descriptive statistics such as means, averages, and percentages were the analytical technique used.
A total of 340 wetland farmers were randomly selected from 18 communities in six local government area councils of the agricultural zones.
The result showed that of the 340 wetland farmers, 64% were women within the age bracket of 31- 40 years constituting 34.7%. 26.8% of the farmers were engaged in wetland farming solely for income generation and increased crop productivity occasioned by the observed high fertility of the wetland. The livelihood activities identified in the wetlands as key to the food security and economic growth of the region are wetland dry season farming (32.5%) and fuel wood with 25%, summing up to 58.44% while the rest activity constitute about 41.5%.
These livelihood activities had great negative impacts on the wetland system sustainability and ecosystem services, and contributed to the fish loss and low price of crops during glut. There is also a need to develop an action plan involving all stakeholders in the region, to harness the livelihood benefits of the ecosystem services in the wetlands without damaging the system or impacting on it negatively.
Ten cocoa farms with declining productivity in five Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Cross River State, Nigeria were selected for rehabilitation purpose through appropriate fertilizer recommendation based on soil test values. The LGAs were Akpamkpa, Ikom, Efung, Boki and Obudu of which Yaunde (Ikom), Agbokim waterfall (Etung) and Orimekpang (Boki) are high cocoa producing areas, while Begiaba (Obudu) and New Ndebiji (Akamkpa) are medium cocoa producing areas. Each farm was divided into four blocks with eight sampling points where soil samples were collected at depths of 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm. Similarly, leaf samples were taken from the tree under whose canopy the soil samples were taken. The soil and leaf samples were processed and analyzed for nutrient compositions in the laboratory using standard laboratory procedures. Results indicated that soils of New Ndebiji and Orimekpang in Akamkpa and Boki Local Government Areas respectively contained 0.65 and 0.71 gkg-1 soil total N. These values are below the critical value for cocoa production. Hence, Nitrogen fertilizer will be necessary for optimum production in the two farms. Similarly, Potassium and Phosphorus are deficient in all the cocoa farms evaluated in the five LGAs. Leaf samples for N, P and K almost follow the trend of soil results. However, soil pH organic carbon, base saturation, CEC all fell within the acceptable range for cocoa production. The fertilizer computation based on the nutrient compositions of the soils indicated that Begiaba (Obudu) farm will require 41 kg P2O5/ha, and 188 kg K2O/ha with no Nitrogen fertilizer, New Ndebiji (Akampka) farm will need 23 kgN/ha, 27 kgP2O5 and 211 kg K2O/ha, Agbokim-waterfall (Etung) 41 kg P2O5/ha and 188 kgK2O/ha, Yaunde (Ikom) will require 94 kg P2O5/ha and 272 kg K2O/ha while Orimepang (Boki) requires 18 kgN/ha, 23 kgP2O5 and 13 K2O/ha. Soil pH had high negative and significant (p <0.01) correlation with soil available P in the various locations of study while the cocoa leaf N significantly correlated with leaf K (p <0.01). Non-acid forming fertilizers particularly organic based will be appropriate to achieve optimum productivity.
Plants are an important feature of urban ecosystems which provide numerous environmental and ecosystem benefits such as defenses against noise and air pollution and conservation of biodiversity. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure and composition of urban vegetation in different urban habitats like roadsides, parks, gardens and playgrounds in Dhaka South City area. Stratified random sampling method was used in this study. A total of 221 plant species belonging to 63 families were identified and recorded. Among all plant species Swieteniamacrophylla, Polyalthia longifolia, Cocos nucifera, Samanea saman, and Artocarpus heterophyllus are recorded as the most dominant. Most of the tree and shrub population were found between 6 - 9 m and 1 - 3 m height classes whereas most of tree and shrub population were found in between 10 – 15 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) classes. Highest important value index (IVI) was found for Swietenia macrophylla (193.22%) followed by Polyalthia longifolia (184.59%), Samanea saman (138.37%), Cocos nucifera (79.9%) and Delonix regia (68.27%) respectively. Average frequency, density, dbh and basal area were found 46.82%, 138.28 tree ha-1, 458.59 cm ha-1 and 12.33 m2 ha-1 respectively. Findings of this study reveals that structural attributes of plant represent quite young and still developing vegetation. This research will help to plan for future green infrastructure which will maintain ecosystem function, therefore, providing longer term benefits for the city dwellers.
Aim: To improve cabbage production by controlling cabbage pests using locally produced organic pesticide and cabbage-tomato intercropping.
Methodology: Four treatments (control, cabbage-tomato intercropping, organic and synthetic pesticides) were evaluated for their potential to control cabbage pests and improve performance.
Results: Cabbage pest infestation correlated negatively with treatments (r = −0.95), ranging from 2–23 infested plants across treatments that differed (P = .001) significantly, with highest in control compared to other treatments (P = .05). Diamondback moth ranged from 1–10 per plant and differed (P = .001) significantly across treatments, with highest in control compared to other treatments (P = .05). Looper larvae correlated negatively with treatments (r = −0.62), ranging from 0–8 per plant and differed (P = .05) significantly across treatments, with highest in control compared to other treatments (P = .05). Snails ranged from 34–91 per treatment and differed (P = .001) significantly across treatments, with highest in control and lowest in organic compared to other treatments (P = .05). The number of sprouted cabbage plants ranged from 0–5 per treatment and differed (P = .001) significantly across treatments, with highest in control compared to other treatments (P = .05). Sprouted cabbage correlated negatively with treatments (r= −0.93) and correlated positively with pest infestation (r = 0.81), diamondback moth (r = 0.71) and looper (r= 0.58). Cabbage yield ranged from 3.2–6.0 t ha-1 and differed (P = .05) significantly across treatments with the lowest in control and highest in intercropping (P = .05). Cabbage yield correlated negatively with diamondback moth (r = −0.62), looper (r = −0.63) and sprouted cabbage (r = −0.62).
Conclusion: Piper emulsion and intercropping effectively controlled cabbage pests while intercropping additionally increased cabbage yield.